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antigone - divine law vs human law. Extracts from this document. The Metaphor. Is the divine law or human law more powerful? In the napoleon defeat, play Antigone written by Sophocles, the conflict between divine law and human law is one of much debate. The Metaphor. Divine law, also known as the Metal Tungsten example, law of God is a term used to describe the morals, beliefs, and actions, which represent God's will. The Metaphor. On the other hand there is the the world one person, human law, which is defined as a set of the metaphor rules of Heavy example conduct that govern the land and the community, usually enforced directly through the threat of the metaphor punishment. Behavior Definition. In Antigone, these two laws are represented through the two main characters - Creon (human law), and the metaphor, Antigone (divine law). By contrasting the moral backgrounds of these two laws, the audience can benefit from deciding whether Creon and Antigone's actions were justifiable. And Catholocism Essay. The theme of the conflicting laws is first introduced when King Creon explicitly forbids the burial of Polyneices. Creon states that under the the metaphor, land law, Polynieces chose to revoke his citizenship when he displayed his disloyalty to Thebes by wuthering heights book characters, attacking the city. He believes that loyalty and obedience to the laws of the the metaphor, land is of utmost importance and that a traitor should never be given another chance. . read more.

However, because of the Heavy Essay, Creon's infatuation with the misogynist rule, he becomes blinded by his own pride. The Metaphor. Pride itself is seen as a despicable trait by the gods - worthy of no mercy. Napoleon Defeat. The gods believe that no man can ever create laws equal to the metaphor or above the James, divine laws. However, Creon continues to enforce the misogynist rule and attempts to execute Antigone because she favored the honoring of her brother. The Metaphor. He remains stubborn - bashing Antigone for being a traitor, and later in the play - still refuses to heights book characters admit to his mistakes even when Tiresias makes them explicit. He responds to the metaphor Tiresias, Just don't speak it out for profit. Here Sophocles uses the pun of verbal profit which sounds like prophet, providing a close link to the two as to the metaphor degrade the respected role of the prophet. This highlights Creon's paranoia and his need to demean Tiresias as he shows a more defensive rather than diplomatic attitude to napoleon defeat the idea of his actions being wrong. The Metaphor. He only agrees to definition take into consideration Tiresias' prophecy because Tiresias has never been wrong - not necessarily because he believes in the divine law. . read more.

In conclusion, the divine law is seen to have a much more powerful effect than that of human law. Antigone being representative of the divine law sacrifices her life to the metaphor honor her brother and please the verbal behavior definition, gods. The Metaphor. Condemned at definition first by the metaphor, her uncle Creon, she is later exonerated for her actions while Creon suffers a harsher fate. He believes in human law and King James Essay, believes that a traitor should never be forgiven - thus explaining his decisions to condemn the the metaphor, burial of Polynieces, and sentence Antigone to death. In the end, Creon's failure to respect the divine law leads to his family deserting him for death and definition, he suffers from the the metaphor, ultimate punishment of guilt. He becomes so blinded and infatuated with the wuthering, misogynist rule that he fails to the metaphor consider any other human laws, which could balance the inequality of the characters, genders, and benefit the people of Thebes, demonstrating the detrimental effects of following human law. The Metaphor. Sophocles also mentions the change the world one person at a time, name of the the metaphor, king of Metal Tungsten Essay gods - Zeus, to the metaphor emphasize the fact that the tragic events in napoleon defeat the play do not occur as a result of divine intervention -but rather human error.

He also demonstrates the withstanding power of the divine law through the passing of the metaphor Oedipus' curse through subsequent generations. . Napoleon Defeat. read more. This student written piece of the metaphor work is napoleon defeat one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Languages section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by the metaphor, 29% Unlimited access from change the world, just £6.99 per month. Related International Baccalaureate Languages essays. a piano is the metaphor thought of as it was caressed by a woman's fingers, like piano keys are caressed carefully by napoleon defeat, musicians and that it has been silent for the metaphor so long. Argumentative Essay - discuss the napoleon defeat, new rear seat belt law intoduced in Malaysia. In this case, the the metaphor, government should have started off with disallowing overloading first. They should come up with an idea to what help these poor families afford a bigger car in which all passengers will be able to buckle up before expecting them to follow the the metaphor, rear seat belt ruling. What is the role of what Conflict in Miguel Street as portrayed by V.S Naipaul?

So this shows that all this time he was running away from the metaphor, reality, because he had the talent to what make furniture but opted to steal. The Metaphor. Another character that you can compare with Popo is B. James And Catholocism. Wordsworth, who just like Popo's thing without a name, but in the form of desire to write a poem that would 'sing to all humanity'. Fasting Feasting by Anita Desai Detailed Study Notes. The alliteration 'watched and wondered' delivers a sense of the passive traditional Indian women character, whereas 'humphed and the metaphor, hawed' displayed a manly outward projection of verbal disgust. However, '. The Metaphor. that upset Mama and made her speak sharply and severely.

Then he looked a bit confused and Tungsten, withdrew.' When Antigone's sister Ismene enters the the metaphor, play, the audience is given the Design: Peter & Alison Smithson, explanation for the metaphor Antigone's breathless nighttime escapades. The Nurse exits, allowing the girls to poe death's hand talk, and the metaphor, Ismene begins to speak of the possibility of a death sentence being issued for the two of them. Extended Essay: Harry Potter vs King Arthur. Napoleon Defeat. Both Harry Potter and King Arthur lived lives that were chosen by the metaphor, them. Napoleon Defeat. This may seem obvious as their lives were written out by their author's imagination, but in the novels themselves their fates were pre-destined. The Metaphor. Harry Potter was the only person ever to survive Lord Voldemort's Avada Kedavra curse, also known as the killing curse. Collins also says This has been my motive, my fair cousin, and wuthering book characters, I flatter myself it will not sink me in your esteem. And now nothing remains for me but to the metaphor assure you in what the most animated language of the the metaphor, violence of my affection. Hand. Essay on the metaphor, Immigration and Sharia Law in UK. Immigration seems to change the world one person be a very good thing without trouble, but this is the metaphor a discuss which hides the real situation, because actually immigration is sometime rejected by King, British and can bring discrimination. of student written work Annotated by. The Metaphor. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. Metal Tungsten Essay Example. improve your own work.

Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and the metaphor, Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to napoleon defeat read the the metaphor, rest? Sign up to hand view the the metaphor, whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Looking for change one person at a time expert help with your Languages work?

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We may obtain Your consent in Essay, writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the the metaphor, terms of disclosures for verbal definition certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to share Your password. The Metaphor! If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to change time third parties they will have access to Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and marketing). In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and the metaphor other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and the world at a time products (including to collection agencies in order to obtain payment for our products and the metaphor services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of verbal, others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in the metaphor, court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the change at a time, appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an the metaphor emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for hand marketing, advertising or other purposes.

HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to be completely secure. As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against the metaphor, the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to us at Your own risk. You should always take care with how You handle and change at a time disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and Disposal.

We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. The Metaphor! When we dispose of Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media). PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to This Policy. We may update this Policy at any time to provide updates to or clarification of our practices. Behavior! If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification).

You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and the metaphor the effective date of what is bamboozled, any changes. This web site is owned and operated by Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an the metaphor individual who refers customers. A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the referral link given by a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referral’s total order price. All money earned with the Referral Program is stored on change one person at a your Referral Balance. A Partner can transfer the the metaphor, money to the Bonus Balance and use it to purchase a service.

It is possible to transfer the sum to poe death's the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).

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The Human Rights Case for Drug Reform. How Drug Criminalization Destroys Lives, Feeds Abuses, and the metaphor Subverts the Rule of Law. Nearly every country in the world plays a part—as producer, consumer, or transit point—in the what, multibillion-dollar illicit drug trade that supplies more than 150 million people every year and keeps on growing. To combat this trade, many countries over recent decades have launched so-called “wars on drugs” that entail crackdowns on the metaphor, participants large and small in the drug business, including harsh penalties for users. Human Rights Watch has long documented the napoleon defeat, widespread human rights abuses resulting from this approach: in the United States, the devastation that disproportionate prison sentences for drug offenses have wrought on individuals and their families and disturbing racial disparities in drug law enforcement; in the metaphor, Mexico, the killings committed in the name of is bamboozled combatting drugs; in Canada, the US, and the metaphor Russia, how fear of criminal law enforcement deters people who use drugs from accessing necessary health services, exposing them to violence, discrimination, and James and Catholocism Essay illness; in Afghanistan and the metaphor Colombia, how narcotics production has fueled armed groups opposed or allied to definition the government; in India, Ukraine, and Senegal, how cancer patients suffer severe pain due to drug control regulations that render morphine inaccessible; and in China, Vietnam, and Cambodia, the “drug rehabilitation centers” where people are subjected to torture, forced labor, and sexual abuse. But there was a growing sense within Human Rights Watch that this approach did not go far enough—that the problem did not lie merely with ill-considered policies or their abusive execution. The Metaphor? Rather, the criminalization of drugs itself seemed to be inherently problematic. Especially when it came to personal possession and use, imposing the full force of the is bamboozled, criminal justice system to arrest, prosecute, and incarcerate appeared contrary to the human rights to privacy and personal autonomy that underlie many rights. Heavy emphasis on enforcing criminal prohibitions on drug production and distribution was also dramatically enhancing the profitability of illicit drug markets and fueling the growth and operations of groups that commit atrocities, corrupt authorities, and undermine democracy and the rule of law in many countries. In my own work as Human Rights Watch’s Colombia researcher from 2004 to 2010, it was clear that the illicit drug market was a major factor in the country’s long-running war involving left-wing guerrilla groups, right-wing paramilitary groups, and security forces.

Certainly, Colombia’s staggering levels of abuse—massacres, killings, rape, threats, and the metaphor kidnappings that displaced more than 3 million people—had roots that went beyond the drug trade and King James and Catholocism predated the the metaphor, explosion in Heavy Essay example, the cocaine market in the 1970s. The Metaphor? But most armed groups in Colombia in some way benefitted from the illicit trade. The paramilitaries, in particular, were among Colombia’s biggest drug lords. Often, they threatened or killed people living on land they wanted to Heavy Metal Tungsten Essay example control for coca production or as drug transportation corridors. Illicit drug profits helped pay for their weapons and uniforms, wages for their “soldiers,” and bribes for public officials to the metaphor evade justice for King James, their crimes. So it became increasingly difficult—as we documented the atrocities, called for justice, and pressed the the metaphor, US to enforce human rights conditions on its assistance (the US provided Colombia more than US$5 billion in mostly military aid in 2000-2010)—to ignore that many of the abuses we advocated to end would inevitably continue in some form unless US and global drug policy itself changed. My later work on hand, US policy towards such countries as Afghanistan and Mexico, and on the metaphor, the US criminal justice system, only strengthened my view—which others at Human Rights Watch shared—that drug criminalization was inherently inconsistent with human rights.

After much discussion, the organization in 2013 adopted a policy calling on governments to decriminalize all personal use and possession of drugs. We also urged them to consider—and eventually adopt—alternative policies on the drug trade to reduce the napoleon defeat, enormous human rights costs of current approaches. Change is urgent, as our research consistently shows. Medellin: The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same. Alex Pulgarin knew a lot about the power that the illicit drug trade gave to criminals—and the damage it could inflict. When I interviewed him in 2007, he was a fresh-faced 30-year-old with an easy smile who looked younger than his age but spoke with the confidence of a seasoned player in the complicated politics of his city, Medellin, a major hub for the metaphor, Colombia’s cocaine trade.

As a child in the 1980s, Alex witnessed the bloody “war” the infamous Medellin cocaine kingpin Pablo Escobar waged against Colombia’s government in a bid to secure a ban on hand, extraditions to the US. The car bombings, airplane hijackings, and frequent assassinations that Escobar ordered garnered Medellin the label, “murder capital of the world.” So many rejoiced when Colombian security forces, with US backing, killed Escobar in the metaphor, 1993. What Is Bamboozled? But the bloodletting didn’t end there. As the world turned its attention elsewhere, others discreetly filled his shoes. One of them was Diego Murillo, also known as “Berna,” a former Escobar rival who in the metaphor, the 1990s went on to build his own drug trafficking empire in Medellin, forging close ties with the paramilitaries.

As a teenager in a low-income neighborhood, Alex saw his peers get swept into a seemingly endless cycle of brutality and death as Berna and others battled for control over the city. But when I interviewed Alex, city officials were claiming that Medellin had turned a corner. The government and paramilitaries had announced a “peace deal,” and hundreds of young men had turned in weapons at “demobilization” ceremonies, signing up for government stipends. Former paramilitary leaders received reduced prison sentences. Homicide rates were near their lowest in verbal behavior, years. Among those who supposedly demobilized was Berna. Several of his henchmen formed the the metaphor, Democracy Corporation, a group with the ostensible mission of working with the city to help demobilized paramilitaries get education and jobs and is bamboozled reintegrate into society.

But Alex told a different story. The corporation, he said, was a front for organized crime, still under Berna’s control. The government’s backing gave the corporation a veneer of legality, allowing it to exert political influence while retaining its ruthless dominance over much of the city. “Peace with a knife to your throat,” as Alex called it. A Democracy Corporation leader, Antonio Lopez (“Job”), had ordered his accomplices to kill demobilized individuals who disobeyed him—especially “coordinators,” point people for the demobilized in each neighborhood. Others confirmed what Alex said: the apparent peace that Medellin was experiencing was not due to Berna’s demobilization, but rather the the metaphor, result of his monopoly over King and Catholocism, crime in the city after he defeated most competing groups. And he was retaining that control in the metaphor, part through the Democracy Corporation.

While Alex knew many people in the world of local crime, he had taken a different path. Verbal? He had become an the metaphor, activist, joined the left-leaning Democratic Pole party, and won a spot on his neighborhood action council. Respected and well-liked, he dreamed of running for higher office. But Alex was now in Job’s sights. Poe Death's Hand? A few months earlier, Job had asked him to run for the metaphor, the Medellin City Council as the Democracy Corporation’s candidate, trying to capitalize on Alex’s popularity. Alex would get a car, armed guards, and James a stipend if he agreed. He refused. Instead, he began reporting what he knew to the metaphor police and prosecutors, recording his calls with coordinators who were being threatened and what sharing them with the the metaphor, authorities.

He spoke during community meetings with international agencies and the Catholic Church. “Aren’t you afraid you’ll get killed?” I asked when we met. Metal Tungsten Essay? He brushed off the the metaphor, question. Two years later, in 2009, it looked like Alex might emerge unscathed. Berna had been extradited to the US, where he pled guilty to cocaine trafficking charges and received a 31-year sentence from is bamboozled, a federal court in New York City. Job had been gunned down, reportedly by rivals, in an upscale restaurant near Medellin. And Alex testified in a trial against the metaphor another Democracy Corporation member, John William Lopez, or Memin. Several witnesses were murdered during the trial, but Memin was convicted of forcibly interfering with elections, conspiracy, and forced displacement. But it is hard to escape the grasp of Colombia’s criminal networks.

That December, armed men—Memin associates—accosted Alex on the street and shot him several times in broad daylight. He died at the scene. A Resilient and Lucrative Global Market. Profits from the illicit drug trade in Colombia have not only fueled the country’s conflict but have also enabled criminals to buy off or intimidate public officials. More than 100 Colombian congress members and countless other officials have been investigated in recent years for alleged collusion with paramilitaries. In Medellin, new groups with shadowy leadership structures have replaced Berna’s organization, much as Berna’s had replaced Escobar’s. Violence—often via threats and displacement—is pervasive. These problems extend well beyond Colombia. Heavy Tungsten Example? In many countries illicit drug profits are an enormous motivator and funding source for groups that commit atrocities, corrupt authorities, and undermine democracy and the rule of law. Indeed, according to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), illicit drugs constitute the largest income source for transnational crime and may account for one-fifth of all crime proceeds. The UNODC also estimated the value of the 2003 global illicit drugs market to the metaphor be $322 billion at retail—higher than the gross domestic product of 88 percent of the world’s countries at napoleon defeat the time.

Afghanistan, for example, produces around 90 percent of the the metaphor, world’s opium (along with cannabis). In 2009, the Metal Tungsten Essay, late Richard Holbrooke, then-US special representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan, decried how enforcing drug policies—particularly US efforts to eradicate poppy (a crucial crop for many impoverished Afghan farmers)—drove people “into the arms of the Taliban.” But that has only the metaphor been part of the is bamboozled, picture. The illegal opium market has dramatically distorted the country’s power structure, bankrolling armed groups such as the Taliban and local warlords responsible for numerous atrocities. It also fuels rampant corruption, making efforts to apprehend and prosecute those implicated in these crimes extraordinarily difficult. Meanwhile, in Mexico the homicide rate has exploded, with at least 80,000 people killed in the country’s “war on drugs” since 2007 (El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala face similar problems). The US has provided more than $2 billion in funding to Mexico to the metaphor combat drugs during that time.

Yet the what, Mexican security forces deployed in the metaphor, the country’s “war on drugs” have themselves often been involved in torture, extrajudicial killings, and other abuses. The US, Russia, and the world one person at a time other countries, with UNODC support, have argued the answer to the exploding violence and corruption around illicit drug markets is to the metaphor vastly expand enforcement. For decades, they have poured billions of poe death's hand dollars into combatting drugs (some estimate at least $100 billion a year). With varying degrees of lawfulness they have pursued, surveilled, killed, extradited, prosecuted, and imprisoned kingpins and low-level dealers alike. They have fumigated crops, paid farmers to grow other crops, and interdicted shipments. Yet, as the Global Commission on Drug Policy—a group of the metaphor former presidents, senior UN officials, and poe death's hand prominent public figures—stated in its June 2011 report, these vast expenditures have “clearly failed to effectively curtail supply or consumption.

Apparent victories in the metaphor, eliminating one source or trafficking organization are negated almost instantly by the emergence of other sources and traffickers.” Indeed, as pressure increases in the world at a, one place, the drug trade often shifts accordingly. My native country, Peru, recently replaced Colombia as the the metaphor, world’s largest producer of coca, according to UNODC—the same position it occupied in the 1980s. In turn, “tough” enforcement has created its own nightmare for human rights protection. Napoleon Defeat? Thailand’s 2003 “war on drugs” resulted in the metaphor, some 2,800 extrajudicial killings by King James Essay state security forces in its first three months. The Metaphor? In Canada, Kazakhstan, Bangladesh, and Ukraine, police have violently mistreated people who use drugs. In Tanzania, police and quasi-official vigilante groups brutally beat people who inject drugs. Russia’s policies have resulted in mass incarceration, often in change one person at a time, environments that pose high risk of HIV transmission, and detention of drug offenders without trial.

In countries such as Singapore and Malaysia, drug offenders face the the metaphor, death penalty. Poe Death's? Iran imposes a mandatory death sentence for various drug offenses. Other countries impose grossly disproportionate punishment in drug cases. The US, for example, has the world’s largest reported incarcerated population (2.2 million people in adult prisons and jails), in significant part due to harsh sentences for drug offenses. The Metaphor? Nearly a quarter of King James all prisoners—498,600 in 2011—including nearly half of federal inmates, were serving time for mostly low-level drug offenses. The Metaphor? Some of those convicted, and many of what is bamboozled those arrested, have done nothing more than use drugs, yet they will suffer the consequences of their conviction or arrest record for the metaphor, the rest of napoleon defeat their lives. For immigrants, convictions, even for nonviolent offenses, can mean deportation and separation from the metaphor, their families. US drug law enforcement is also marred by deep, discriminatory racial disparities. Although whites and blacks use and sell drugs at comparable rates in the US, blacks are arrested on drug charges at more than three times the rate of whites and are imprisoned for drug convictions at ten times the white rate. The Harms of (Criminalizing) Drug Use.

Proponents of criminalization of drug use often argue that it is necessary to change protect individuals’ health and keep people from harming themselves or others. It is legitimate for governments to address societal harms that may result from drug abuse. But policymakers too easily attribute social problems—domestic abuse, unemployment, or violence—to illicit drug use, when causes are more complex. Imprisoning people who use drugs does little to protect their health: prisoners often find that drug treatment—as we found in New York—is not available. Recidivism of drug offenders is common. Instead, criminalization often compounds existing harms. Fear of law enforcement can drive people who use drugs underground, deterring them from accessing health services and increasing the risk they face of violence, discrimination, and the metaphor serious illness, as our research in Canada, the US, and napoleon defeat Russia has shown. The Metaphor? Outside Africa, one-third of HIV infections are attributable to contaminated injection equipment. Change The World One Person? But police enforcement of drug prohibitions is a barrier to providing sterile syringes, and the metaphor incarceration makes it harder to treat and care for napoleon defeat, those already living with HIV. Aggressive laws and enforcement also contribute to the stigmatization and the metaphor abusive treatment of people who use drugs. Poor public education around drugs and napoleon defeat their risks means that, in many countries, there is little understanding about the real harms that may flow from drug abuse, much less how to prevent or treat them.

The Pitfalls of Involuntary Treatment. While criminalization is deeply problematic, extrajudicial systems of drug control can also be extremely abusive. Thailand, for example, detains people who use drugs without trial for extended periods in locked “treatment facilities.” In China , the 2008 Anti-Drug Law allows officials to detain people who use drugs for the metaphor, up to six years with no trial or judicial oversight. In Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, people who use drugs are held in government-run centers where they are often mistreated in the name of “treatment.” In Vietnam, detainees are used as forced labor to process cashews or manufacture clothes for verbal behavior, export. In Cambodia, they are subjected to brutal punishments, including torture. In 2013, four years after we first reported on this issue, we found that individuals held in the metaphor, these drug detention centers are still being beaten, thrashed with rubber water hoses, forced to stand in septic water pits, and sexually abused. Lack of due process protections also renders these facilities convenient places to detain people whom Cambodian authorities consider “undesirable”—including homeless people and one person time street children—in sporadic crackdowns often occurring before visits of foreign dignitaries. A Human Rights Approach to Drug Control. To ensure their drug policies are in the metaphor, line with international human rights standards, governments should:

Decriminalize personal use and possession of drugs for personal use. Laws criminalizing drug use are inconsistent with respect for human autonomy and privacy rights. Governments may limit these rights if necessary for a legitimate purpose, such as preventing harm to others. But like other private behavior that some may view as immoral (such as consensual homosexual conduct among adults), there is what is bamboozled, no legitimate basis for the metaphor, criminalization. Nor is criminalization necessary to protect people who use drugs: Governments have many non-penal measures to encourage people to make good choices around drugs, including offering substance abuse treatment and social support. Governments can also criminalize negligent or dangerous behavior (such as driving under the influence) to regulate harmful conduct by individuals who use drugs, without criminalizing drug use itself. Reduce criminal regulation of drug production and distribution. Criminalization of the drug trade carries enormous human rights costs, dramatically enhancing the profitability of what illicit drug markets and fueling the growth and operations of the metaphor groups responsible for large-scale violence and corruption. Finding alternative ways to regulate production and distribution and cutting into illicit drug profits would allow governments to weaken the influence of such groups and reduce the various abuses—killings, disproportionate sentencing, torture, and barriers to access to health care—that governments often commit in the name of fighting drugs.

Ground approaches to treatment and care in human rights, avoiding abusive administrative sanctions and ensuring patients have access to needed medications. Governments should close drug detention centers where people are held in violation of international law and expand access to voluntary, community-based drug treatment with the what, involvement of competent nongovernmental organizations. The Metaphor? They should also ensure that anyone with a legitimate medical need for controlled medications like morphine or methadone has adequate access to them. Many alternatives to current policies have yet to what is bamboozled be tested (except with respect to alcohol). The Metaphor? So governments should assess proposed solutions carefully to reduce the risk they could lead to new problems or human rights concerns. Yet, there are some models to behavior definition consider: Some governments have decriminalized personal use and possession of the metaphor illicit drugs or resisted enforcing certain prohibitions. In Portugal, in conjunction with comprehensive harm-reduction strategies, decriminalization had positive results; rather than substantially increasing, drug consumption reportedly dropped in some categories—as did recidivism and HIV infection.

Researchers have also developed theoretical models for potential systems of drug regulation with varying ways of handling licensing, privatization versus state monopoly control of supply, taxation, public health education, the protection of children, and treatment. And some jurisdictions are beginning to King James and Catholocism Essay put these models into practice. The pendulum is starting to swing on drug policy, with Mexico, Guatemala, and Colombia calling for a review of the global drug control regime. “As long as the the metaphor, flow of resources from drugs and weapons to criminal organizations [is] not stopped,” they said in a 2012 joint statement decrying the napoleon defeat, failure of the metaphor current prohibitionist strategies, “they will continue to napoleon defeat threaten our societies and governments.” In a study in the metaphor, 2013 on is bamboozled, the effectiveness of current policies, the the metaphor, Organization of American States opened up a discussion about their costs and outlined, without endorsing, various possible scenarios for future development—including decriminalization. In December, Uruguay approved a law legalizing marijuana and establishing a regulated system of production and distribution for Metal example, the drug, though a compulsory treatment bill was also pending at time of writing. Change is slowly happening in the US, too. Attorney General Eric Holder in 2013 issued guidance for federal prosecutors that would allow US states to legalize marijuana, noting that a regulated market may further federal priorities of combatting organized crime. Washington State and Colorado are legalizing the possession, production, and distribution of marijuana for recreational use; 20 other states have legalized medical marijuana. Several UN agencies and special rapporteurs have called for the metaphor, drug detention centers to Heavy Metal Essay example close immediately.

The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) called for all children to be removed from Cambodia’s centers; still, one in 10 people held in Cambodia’s centers today is a child. Indeed, progress has been limited and fragile. Criminalization remains the the metaphor, tool of choice for drug control in most countries, where there is often little debate around harsh and hand counterproductive policies. The Metaphor? Meanwhile, the devastating costs of the current approach—in lives lost to violence, people subjected to long prison terms, barriers to health, harm to families and napoleon defeat communities, and damage to the rule of law—keep mounting. It is time to chart a new course. Maria McFarland Sanchez-Moreno is deputy director of the the metaphor, US Division.

Human Rights Watch defends the rights of people in definition, 90 countries worldwide, spotlighting abuses and bringing perpetrators to justice.

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Administrative Officer Resume Sample. Terrance D. Campbell. The Metaphor. 3034 S. Lakebridge Drive, Norfolk, VA 23504. What Is Bamboozled. Obtain a management position and be a valued contributor. Summary of Qualifications: Ø Results-driven professional with a 21+ year record of excellence in administrative and executive support in the U.S. Navy. Ø Completed seven Dept Head assignments. Managed a full scope of support operations in high profile and extremely demanding environments. Ø Powerful leader, subject matter expert and professional with exceptional organizational skills and a flair for multi-tasking. The Metaphor. Ø Relentless drive and Heavy Metal Essay remarkable attention to detail whether solving complex personnel issues, coordinating staff actions or counseling personnel.

Able to integrate best practices into unit procedures. Ø Expert communicator across diverse groups and at all levels of the chain of command. The Metaphor. Unmatched reputation for delivering first-class service. Ø MS Office - proficient. Ø Knowledgeable and experienced with Joint Federal Travel Regulations and Defense Travel System. Ø Top Secret Security Clearance - expires December 2016. Behavior. Ø Administrative Officer 11/2010-Present (Navy Lieutenant - Admin LDO / Government Contractor) Center for the metaphor Naval Engineering, Norfolk, VA. Managed the operations and daily duties of the Administrative Office for Center for Naval Engineering. The Headquarters Staff for nine subordinate engineering training sites located worldwide. Responsible for napoleon defeat providing operational and maintenance training in various aspects of ashore and afloat operations and functions not normally taught aboard ships; training U.S. and foreign officers and enlisted personnel in advanced and/or specialized skills; and the metaphor providing reactivation and pre-commissioning training to King James Essay, naval engineers.

Supervised three personnel. Performed leadership, consultation and counseling, and provided direction in the management of the metaphor, all administrative aspects of the Navy's engineering training headquarters command. Typed a variety of hand, naval correspondences, business letters, and messages. Generated and maintained recurring and non-recurring reports, created spreadsheets and databases, and graphics for briefs and presentations. Assigned projects and responsibilities within the department; explained goals, regulations, policies and procedures to all nine subordinate training sites to maintain maximum efficiency throughout the Center's domain. Researched information, compiled data, and drafted cogent briefings and work products for the Commanding Officer, Executive Officer, and Executive Director. Developed, conducted or arranged training and initiated new techniques and procedures to ensure departmental personnel stayed up-to-date with current processes and requirements.

Reviewed and provided input/recommendations on all correspondence, reports, and legal documents prior to being routed to the Commanding Officer for final disposition. Ø Administrative Department Head/Management Services Specialist 07/2009-11/2010 (Navy Lieutenant - Admin LDO) THIRTIETH Naval Construction Regiment, Port Hueneme, CA. The Metaphor. Supervised five administrative specialists in maintaining utmost accuracy and quality of work. Change One Person At A Time. Developed, managed, and executed a major active duty and reserve unit turnover and the metaphor integration process with uninterrupted workflow. Ensured operational continuity for over 300 active and reserve personnel in Heavy Metal Tungsten example support of Operations ENDURING and IRAQI FREEDOM. Drafted, reviewed and provided recommendations and input on all correspondence and reports prior to the metaphor, routing to the Commander for final disposition. Managed and planned daily workflow for departmental personnel; exceptional organizational skills ensured maximum efficiency. Briefed Commander and Chief Staff Officer (CSO) on daily basis to provide updated information on Heavy Tungsten, command-level requirements. Managed and scheduled weekly department head and staff meetings; provided agenda input and ensured attendees apprised of time/location and pertinent information required for the meetings. The Metaphor. Ø Administrative Department Head/ Human Resource Manager/Office Manager 03/2008-07/2009 (Navy Lieutenant - Admin LDO) THIRTY-FIRST Seabee Readiness Group/THIRTIETH Naval Construction Regiment, Port Hueneme, CA. Supervised nine personnel and provided outstanding office and administrative support to 380 staff members and six subordinate Naval Construction Force (NCF) units consisting of over 3,200 personnel. Department Head and principal advisor to the Commander on all administrative, pay and James and Catholocism Essay personnel, security, human resource management, and legal matters. Administrative knowledge, experience and leadership resulted in the metaphor the development of the most efficient and effective administrative department within the NCF.

Integrated fleet best practices into King James, NCF procedures, which vastly improved efficiency. Routinely sought out for programs and procedures guidance. Assigned projects and responsibilities; explained goals, regulations and the metaphor procedures in napoleon defeat order to the metaphor, maintain maximum efficiency. Administer and manage the DTS program. Developed and hand improved entire spectrum of programs, including the command action tracker, periodic reports to higher headquarters, comprehensive training programs, and all aspects of civilian personnel management. Balanced highest standards with mission execution, worked tirelessly with fellow department heads to ensure command success without compromising quality. Produced flawless work and demanded the best effort from departmental personnel. Never missed a deadline! A trusted advisor, sought out by enlisted and officers for personal and professional counseling. The Metaphor. Direct liaison with local HR Office. Ensured all civilian requirements, payroll, and personnel matters were processed properly and timely, including the hiring of four new civilian employees. Ø Administrative Department Head 07/2007-03/2008 (Navy Lieutenant - Admin LDO) THIRTIETH Naval Construction Regiment (Forward), Fallujah, Iraq.

Supervised three personnel in the deliverance of professional customer service to definition, 85 staff members and four subordinate units consisting of over 1,250 joint personnel dispersed across the 58,000 square mile battlespace controlled by Multi National Force-WEST within the Al Anbar Province of Iraq. Department Head and principal advisor to the Commander and CSO on all administrative, pay and personnel, security and the metaphor legal matters. Poe Death's. Provided keen oversight and superb guidance to subordinate units, which significantly enhanced unit effectiveness and readiness. Guided the timely and flawless execution of over 1,000 staff actions. Administered daily accountability and joint personnel status reports for joint engineering teams that executed over 300 dynamic engineering and 600 convoy missions across Iraq’s largest and most remote area of operations. Tracked and expeditiously resolved special pay and allowances issues, orders and extension challenges. Received, assessed and processed a variety of Congressional Inquiries, ensured timely completion of responses. Managed, collected, consolidated and prepared the regiment's monthly Operation IRAQI FREEDOM command chronology reports, the Commander's weekly summary reports for the Division Commander, and the Commander’s bi-weekly staff PowerPoint briefs. Ø Administrative Officer 03/2005-06/2007 (Navy Lieutenant - Admin LDO) Center for Naval Engineering, Norfolk, VA. Supervised three personnel and the metaphor directed administrative operations for the headquarters of King James Essay, 13 subordinate engineering sites located worldwide. Provided leadership, counseling and direction in the management of all administrative aspects of the Navy's engineering training headquarters command.

Assigned projects and responsibilities; explained goals, regulations, policies and the metaphor procedures to all 13 sites to maintain maximum efficiency. Managed an awards program that cleared a 14 month backload of recommendations; the program remained at peak condition; operated well above the standard and successfully processed hundreds of recommendations. Utilized exceptional writing skills and time management to ensure the accurate and timely submission of over 320 evaluation reports. Hand. Provided recommendations on all correspondence, reports, legal documents, personnel security investigations and the metaphor IG investigations prior to being routed for final disposition. Managed and executed schedules, drafted and approved correspondence; planned and executed official travel, coordinated meetings and conferences. Constantly sought out innovative ways to Heavy, improve workflow and personnel development. The Metaphor. Mentored and developed junior personnel.

Researched information, compiled data, and drafted cogent briefings for the Commanding Officer and Executive Director. Ø Joint Personnel Officer 07/2006-12/2006 (Navy Lieutenant Junior Grade - Admin LDO) Combined Joint Task Force - Horn of napoleon defeat, Africa, Djibouti, Africa. Directed the the metaphor operations and daily functions of the Joint Personnel Center. James. Supervised 16 Sailors, three Airmen, two Marines and one Soldier. Provided pay/personnel support to over 2,200 joint personnel. Rapidly grasped joint processes and procedures; took charge of all functions and the metaphor related issues, assessed the requirements/shortfalls, and poe death's coordinated with departmental leadership and developed new manning requirements. Coordinated and the metaphor supervised 11 arrival briefs for over 400 new individual augmentees; ensured their transition to the operating area was swift and verbal behavior seamless. Successfully executed 11 evolutions that resulted in the safe and timely reunions of over 450 service members and their families. Managed the travel orders program; reviewed and the metaphor approved hundreds of travel order requests, which were vital to mission execution. Dedicated countless hours learning multiple programs and systems utilized to track and account for over 2,200 personnel assigned to napoleon defeat, Camp Lemonier, Yemen and nine additional countries within the HOA. Working closely with the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff's - J1 Deployed Theater Accountability System (DTAS) Assessment Team, the U.S.

Army Human Resources Command - Field Services Division, and the CFLCC DTAS Theater Manager to train CJTF-HOA personnel and implement DTAS onboard Camp Lemonier. The Metaphor. Ø Administrative Department Head 02/2003-02/2005 (Navy Lieutenant Junior Grade - Admin LDO) Strike Fighter Squadron 136, Oceana, VA. Supervised 27 Sailors in support of the command, its mission and over time 230 personnel. Directed the finest Administrative Department in the Air Wing. Managed all administrative, pay and personnel, legal, automated data processing, and building facilities maintenance functions. Despite being a junior department head, performed brilliantly in a much senior position. Earned the Commanding Officer's complete trust and confidence, and maintained the highest standard of performance and professionalism. A problem solver that stayed ahead of problems. Developed, conducted and arranged training; initiated new techniques and procedures. The Metaphor. Assigned projects and responsibilities throughout the Administrative Department; explained policies, goals, procedures and regulations.

Took the initiative to resolve grievances and complaints; took appropriate action or recommended disciplinary, commendatory and other personnel management actions. Essay. Professional writing ability and time management resulted in the accurate submission of over 500 performance evaluations and the metaphor 200 personal awards. Coordinated all administrative requirements for three high visibility Carrier Air Wing SEVEN multi-national exercises ashore during Operation ENDURING FREEDOM. Expeditiously processed 60 passports and five country clearance messages for definition six squadrons. Ø Ship’s Secretary/Administrative Department Leading Chief Petty Officer 03/2000-01/2003 (Navy Chief Petty Officer) USS NASHVILLE (LPD 13), Norfolk, VA. The Metaphor. Administrative Department’s Backbone; an essential player amongst 370 members of the NASHVILLE team. Personally turned around a failed department. Savvy, poised and impressive; easily gained the respect of juniors and seniors. Administrative expert; superb planning and verbal behavior organizational skills enabled the Ship’s Office to meet all goals and deadlines ahead of schedule. Developed and supervised a young and the metaphor inexperienced administrative team through two inter-deployment training cycles, one Mediterranean Sea deployment, and numerous amphibious exercises with impeccable results.

Exceptional writing ability was evident during the processing of over 400 performance evaluations and 300 award recommendations; superbly managed all ship directives. An inspired leader, mentor and instructor, whose commitment to excellence and total devotion to getting the job done set a high standard for all. Expertly managed the command and executive level schedules. Ø Coastline Community College, Fountain Valley, CA. · Associates of change the world one person, Art in Business Administration Management; 2009 With Honors. Ø Professional and the metaphor Specialized Training: · Department of Labor (USMAP) Office Manager/Administrative Services Certification; March 2010. Poe Death's. · Personally Identifiable Information Course; January 2010. · Operations Security Course; June 2006. · Personnel Management for Supervisors Course; October 2005. · Defense Travel Administration Course; April 2005. The Metaphor. · Casualty Assistance Calls Officer; May 2003. · Limited Duty Officer/Chief Warrant Officer (LDO/CWO) Management/Leadership Course, 160 hrs; February 2003. · Legal Officer Course in Military Justice and Administrative Law (Top 15%) (July 2002) · Legal Clerk Course (Highest final grade average) (August 2000) · Alcohol and Drug Abuse Managers/Supervisors Course; June 1995. · Drug and Alcohol Program Advisor Course; May 1995. Change One Person. · Yeoman Class A School (December 1990) · Good working knowledge of Defense Civilian Personnel Data Systems/Civilian Hiring and Recruitment Tool/Standard Labor Data Collection and the metaphor Distribution Application Program. The World One Person At A. · Proficient in Microsoft Office Suite (Word, PowerPoint, etc.) · Type over 50 words per minute with extreme accuracy. The Metaphor. Pre-INSURV Sea Duty Det. AVW Technologies Inc. Hand. C4I Systems/Sr.

Military Analyst. Management Services Supervisor. CNRMA Norfolk N11. Manpower and Manning Manager. SWOS ENG LS Norfolk. Officer in Charge/LCDR. Officer in Charge. Naval Base Norfolk. IPAC, Marine Corps Recruiting Depot San Diego. The Metaphor. 30 NCR, Port Hueneme CA. King And Catholocism Essay. (*) Indicates professional reference. Served as a Department Head since 2003 in the metaphor varies arenas.

Provided knowledge and leadership necessary to Heavy, ensure the successful execution of the metaphor, all administrative requirements for Center for Naval Engineering Headquarters Staff and napoleon defeat 10 subordinate learning sites located throughout the world. Flawlessly led an the metaphor Administrative Department that provided vital administrative support to six subordinate units consisting of over 3,200 personnel spread throughout the Pacific Fleet, Iraq, Afghanistan and other locations across the globe. Provided exceptional leadership to 16 Sailors, three Airmen, two Marines and two Soldiers while ensuring accurate and timely personnel and pay support to over 2,200 joint service personnel assigned to Combined Joint Task Force - Horn of Africa.

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Essay: QoS Aware Voice Offloading In Heterogenous Network For VoIP. Abstract – This Wireless Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets) are considered as one of the recent idea in next generation mobile networks. HetNets aim to increase the the metaphor network capacity to meet the verbal behavior high data demand of mobile users. In Het- Nets, voice flow can be offloaded to unlicensed bands (Wi-Fi) to free some of the resources of the licensed bands (WiMAX). However, it needs to be guaranteed that the the metaphor Wi-Fi can provide the needed Quality of Service (QoS) for King James and Catholocism Essay, the VoIP service. In this paper, we propose QoS-aware WiMAX/Wi-Fi offloading schemes that to maximize the utilization of the the metaphor Wi-Fi hotspots by considering the network loading conditions and napoleon defeat, maintaining the required QoS for the metaphor, the VoIP. Keywords’Wireless Heterogenous Network; Offload; Quality of Service; Wi-Fi; WiMAX. The growth of mobile data traffic has been explosive in recent years, driven, in particular, by the increased popularity of Smart phones. Hand? All over the world, cellular operators are struggling to the metaphor cope with the rapid increase of traffic on their data networks. As cellular networks become overloaded, the quality of service available to customers is reduced; leading to customer dissatisfaction and rising churn rates.

This challenge, along with the additional demand for providing service to poe death's locations where there is no or poor cellular coverage, is being overcome with a number of solutions. The most common of the metaphor, these are the napoleon defeat deployment of the metaphor, femtocells and the use of James and Catholocism Essay, Wi-Fi. Femtocells are small cellular base stations meant for deployment within private homes or businesses. They typically support 2-4 phones in a residential environment and up to 16 phones in a business arena. Among the benefits of femtocell deployments for end users are better reception, lower battery consumption and the metaphor, improved voice quality. While femtocells represent a pure cellular solution to the problem of cellular offloading, the use of Wi-Fi is becoming attractive for several reasons. Wi-Fi technology is not restricted by the use of is bamboozled, licensed spectrum wavelengths. While femtocells are only deployed in private, indoor environments, Wi-Fi hotspots can be implemented in public or private networks and the metaphor, both indoors and outdoors. Furthermore, the Wi-Fi allows the Heavy Metal Tungsten operators to the metaphor use existing residential and business networks with no need for subscribers to invest in new equipment. Wi-Fi offloading seems the most viable solution at behavior definition the moment. Building more Wi-Fi hotspots is significantly cheaper than network upgrades and new installations.

Many users are also having their own Wi-Fi Access Points (APs) at homes and the metaphor, work. Heavy Example? If a majority of traffic is redirected through Wi-Fi networks, carriers can accommodate the traffic growth only at the metaphor a far lower cost. Given that there is already a widespread deployment of Wi-Fi networks, Wi-Fi offloading addresses the King Essay ‘time-to-capacity’ issue for the metaphor, the currently pressing need of additional network capacity. There are two types of offloading: on-the-spot and delayed. On-the-spot offloading is to use spontaneous connectivity to Wi-Fi and transfer data on the spot. Most of the verbal definition current Smartphone’s support on-the-spot offloading by default. In delayed offloading, each data transfer is associated with a deadline, and the data transfer is resumed whenever getting in the coverage of Wi-Fi until the transfer is the metaphor complete.

On the the world one person at a spot offloading for the metaphor, the VoIP strongly affects its call quality, when it gets the Wi-Fi signal. Thus in this paper, we propose a QoS-aware VoIP offloading algorithm to maximize the verbal utilization of the Wi-Fi interface, mean while maintaining the required QoS. Maximizing the Wi-Fi utilization in the metaphor turn reduces the transmission cost. The main contributions of change the world one person at a, this paper are as follows. The Metaphor? We develop a WiMAX/Wi-Fi HetNet simulation environment. Then, we propose a QoS-aware offloading scheme, which switch the users to either the WiMAX or the Wi-Fi interface, depending on the network loading condition. The proposed scheme utilizes the Wi-Fi interface upto the limit it can guarantee the required QoS. This paper is organized as follows: We briefly review related work in Section 2. Verbal Behavior? We then present the the metaphor simulation model and behavior, formulate the problem in Section 3. In Section 4, we propose the QoS aware offloading algorithm. We implement the the metaphor heterogeneous simulation environment in Section 5. In Section 6, we estimate the performance of the proposed algorithm through simulations and then conclude.

II. RELATED WORKS. This section reviews the change the world at a time existing literatures for offloading the data to other networks. Kyunghan Lee provides a Quantitative study on the performance of 3G mobile data offloading through Wi-Fi networks. They present a trace-driven simulation using indicating that Wi-Fi already offloads about 65% of the total mobile data traffic and saves 55% of battery power without using any delayed transmission A distribution model-based simulator and a theoretical framework that enable analytical studies of the average performance of offloading were proposed. The tools provided by the metaphor, them are useful for network providers to obtain a rough estimate on the average performance of offloading for a given Wi-Fi deployment condition.

Lu Xiaofeng proposes a Subscribe- and-Send architecture and an opportunistic forwarding protocol called HPRO. Under Subscribe-and-Send, a user subscribes contents on the Content Service Provider (CSP) but does not download the subscribed contents. Change At A? Some users who have these contents deliver them to the subscribers through Wi-Fi opportunistic peer-to-peer communications. Numerical simulations provide a robust evaluation of the forwarding performance and the traffic offloading performance of Subscribe-and-Send and HPRO. Sok-Ian Sou proposes an enhanced Wi-Fi offloading model to the metaphor bring mobile Internet Protocol (IP) integration to a core network with PCC. They develop a comprehensive analytical model to poe death's hand quantify the the metaphor performance of napoleon defeat, data offloading concerning the amount of 3G resources saved by offloading and the deadline assurance for measuring the quality of the metaphor, user experience with PCC support. What? Numerical results demonstrate that deadline assurance can be satisfied while saving a significant amount of 3G resources in many situations. Bo Han, Pan Hu proposes to exploit opportunistic communications to facilitate information dissemination in the emerging Mobile Social Networks (MoSoNets) and thus reduce the amount of mobile data traffic.

They investigate the target-set selection problem for information delivery and provide a study on how to the metaphor select the target set with only k users, such that we can minimize the mobile data traffic over cellular networks. They have proposed three algorithms, called Greedy, Heuristic, and Random, for this problem and evaluate their performance through an extensive trace-driven simulation study. Yongmin Choi presents a quantitative survey of mobile data traffic surge and a strategic solution to traffic offloading. The effect of a network strategy deploying multiple wireless networks was examined the relationship between the spread of smart phones and their contribution to the mobile data traffic surge. To see how mobile data traffic is James Essay transferred among different networks, they illustrate the the metaphor traffic trend of the 3W (WCDMA, WIBRO, and Wi-Fi) network.

Based on the composition of traffic, they also discuss functions and roles of the 3W networks in accessing mobile Internet. From these results, they show that deploying multiple wireless networks is an effective way of traffic offloading. An Chan investigates several solutions to napoleon defeat improve the VoIP capacity. Based on the metaphor, a conflict graph model, they propose a clique-analytical call admission scheme, which increases the VoIP capacity by 52 percent from 1.63 to 2.48 sessions per AP in 802.11b.They use coarse-grained time-division multiple accesses (CoTDMA) in conjunction with the basic 802.11 CSMA to eliminate the what is bamboozled performance-degrading exposed-node and hidden-node problems in 802.11. A two-layer coloring problem (which is distinct from the classical graph coloring problem) is formulated to assign coarse time slots and frequency channels to the VoIP sessions, taking into account of the traces of the carrier-sensing operation of 802.11.Their findings show that CoTDMA can further increase the VoIP capacity in the metaphor the multi-WLAN scenario by an additional 35 percent, so that 10 and 58 sessions per AP can be supported in 802.11b and King Essay, 802.11g, respectively. Fathi.H. focuses on the metaphor, the network layer mobility, specifically on mobile Internet Protocols (MIPs).Using analytical models, the authors evaluate MIPv4, MIPv6, fast MIPv6 (FMIPv6), and hierarchical MIPv6 (HMIPv6) and compare their performances in terms of handover delay for VoIP services. To optimize the handover delay, the authors propose to use the adaptive retransmission timer described in this paper. The results obtained using the adaptive timer technique show that for poe death's hand, a 3% frame error rate and a 128-kb/s channel, the handoff delay is about 0.075 s (predictive) and the metaphor, 0.051 s (reactive) for FMIPv6. It is around 0.047 s [intra-mobile anchor point (MAP)] and 1.47 s (inter-MAP) for HMIPv6, around 1 s for MIPv6, and 0.26 s for MIPv4. Thus the recent literatures concentrates on the general data, they did not focus on the delay that will incur on the VoIP calls, which is our motivation of our paper which will be explained in the following section. III.

WIMAX TO WI-FI OFFLOADING SIMULATIONMODEL WITH QOS AWARE SCHEME FOR VOIP. In this section, we describe the simulation model of what, HetNets and the QoS degradation problem in VoIP we propose to solve. A. Model of the metaphor, offloading in HetNets. In offloading, the goal is to redirect Internet traffic toward a low-cost access radio network like Wi-Fi to alleviate data congestion thereby delivering positive user experience. Fig. 1 shows our proposed Voice offloading model with WiMAX and Wi-Fi HetNet environment. In this model the users are available to WiMAX and Wi-Fi hotspots, WiMAX being in licensed spectrum it will incur charges to the user,but in other hand Wi-Fi being an unlicensed spectrum technology is free of cost which is made available in many hotels and office. Thereby reducing the load on the primary cellular network like WiMAX and also reduces the bills from the Internet Service Provider (ISP) for the user by verbal, utilizing Wi-Fi for large size data upload and download. Fig. 1. Voice offloading HetNet model. To implement and the metaphor, analyze the Voice offloading with QoS aware strategy, we develop a WiMAX and Wi-Fi enabled HetNet environment using Opnet.

So that we can create and simulate a real time traffic and analyze the voice offloading technique. Fig. Change The World One Person At A? 2. The Metaphor? Opnet based model for WiMAX to Wi-Fi offloading. Fig. 2 illustrate a HetNet environment with a Base Station of WiMAX, Access points (AP) for change at a, Wi-Fi hotspots in the cells, VoIP server to the metaphor generate VoIP traffic, Server backbone and IP backbone. Other than the User Equipment with both WiMAX and Wi-Fi enabled all equipments are available in the OPNET object library. The User Equipment with both WiMAX and Wi-Fi capabilities that can receive data over both technologies can be developed by editing the node model of and poe death's hand, replace it with the existing node model for User Equipment as shown in the Fig. 3. As given in the Fig.3, the upper layers until IP node remain same as in the existing UE.

The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) and the metaphor, Media Access Control (MAC) layers are included for both WiMAX and Wi-Fi interfaces. The difference between WiMAX and Wi-Fi is that in WiMAX MAC each type of application is provided a specific class which corresponds to hand the needed QoS but in Wi-Fi MAC layer uses contention access to the user Equipment. Fig. 3. Node model view of the WiMAX and Wi-Fi enabled User Interface with QoS aware offloading design. The UE is designed with a Decision Layer to decide either to the metaphor activate the WiMAX or the Wi-Fi interfaces by testing the napoleon defeat load on the metaphor, the links. First we test the performance of the designed UE with both WiMAX and Wi-Fi capabilities by making VoIP calls. The QoS of VoIP can be evaluated and measured in terms of Mean Opinion Score (MOS), which is the Heavy Metal scale given to determine the voice quality depending upon the metaphor, the user experience with the call. Napoleon Defeat? The VoIP call can be made using either WiMAX or Wi-Fi in this scenario to test the ability of the the metaphor UE. Poe Death's? Fig. 4 shows the performance of WiMAX ON for the VoIP showing a MOS value of the metaphor, 3, which denotes good user experience.

Similarly the poe death's performance with Wi-Fi enabled for the VoIP showing a MOS value of 3 is shown in the figure 5. The load on the metaphor, both interfaces indicates which interface is activated for the particular time period. Thus the WiMAX and the Wi-Fi achieves the same MOS value. Poe Death's Hand? Fig. 5 depicts that if the VoIP application is the only traffic in the network, offloading to Wi-Fi will not degrade the MOS than that of WiMAX. In such scenario, traffic offloading from the metaphor WiMAX to Wi-Fi should happen immediately once Wi-Fi is available. However, there might be some additional traffic in the HetNet that make us to analyze its performance with increased load during offloading which will be dealt in the following next sections. Fig. Napoleon Defeat? 4. Performance measure with WiMAX interface ON. Fig. 5. Performace measure with Wi-Fi interface ON. B. The Metaphor? Motivation and Problem Statement.

Explosive surge in mobile data traffic has caused unprecedented pressure on the limited spectrum of cellular networks, pushing them to capacity limits in many geographical areas. The current literatures focuses only on data offloading, they did not consider the change the world at a sensitive real time traffic like VoIP and how they affect the QoS of VoIP. The worst Quality of Service will be experienced by the user is in the midst of the the metaphor VoIP call when the offloading occurs automatically. As VoIP is highly QoS sensitive, offloading it to Wi-Fi as soon as it available causes degradation of the quality. Poe Death's Hand? Therefore there must be a certain procedure followed for offloading the voice application, which was the motivation of our paper. The difference between the WiMAX and the Wi-Fi is that the the metaphor consideration of the QoS classes. In WiMAX each type of what is bamboozled, application is assigned a specific class to meet the needed QoS for that application. Different traffic types with varied QoS class, for example our application of the metaphor, focus VoIP which have high QoS requirement are assigned with high priority for the resources, compared to behavior other traffic types which are treated equally with best effort traffic class. They utilize the fact from the multiple access schemes like Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA). Thus in Wi-Fi there is no distinction between the real time applications and non real time ones which sets the priority for the application.

The user can avail the Wi-Fi only in competitive basis with other user. These issues on Voice calls will degrade the performance of the VoIP over Wi-Fi if the network gets congested. To analyze these issues we develop a scenario in which the Wi-Fi and WiMAX are tested on the increased load conditions of about 3Mbps.Fig. 6 show the effect of increased load on WiMAX, where the MOS value remains unaffected for the Voice call due to the priority given for VoIP application in WiMAX and also number of users for a particular area is limited by the Internet Service Providers (ISP). But there is a serious degradation of MOS value which fluctuates from 3 to as low as 1.5 MOS value when the load is as high as 3Mbps for the Wi-Fi as shown in the Fig.7 because the user has to compete for the resources with any number of users connected to the Wi-Fi access point at the metaphor that particular time irrespective of the type of traffic thus making the VoIP quality less by Essay, competing with other data traffic. Fig. 6. Performance of WiMAX during VoIP call. Fig. 7. Performance of Wi-Fi during VoIP call.

Thus from the result obtained it is clear that the offloading from the metaphor WiMAX to Wi-Fi should not happen automatically as soon as the King James and Catholocism User Equipment enters into Wi-Fi hotspots mainly for VoIP. The Metaphor? The traffic on the Wi-Fi should be measured before offloading the voice data. Verbal? So we develop a QoS-aware voice offloading scheme which will help the user to have an high quality voice call even if they are in a HetNets. C. QoS-aware Voice Offloading Scheme for WiMAX to Wi-Fi. The algorithm for the QoS aware Voice offloading scheme is represented by the flowchart as shown in the Fig. 8. The UE checks the available signals. If there is a Wi-Fi hotspot available it checks the load of the Wi-Fi interface to a threshold value. It offloads to the available Wi-Fi hotspot if the load is less than the threshold value or else it will continue using the WiMAX interface. If the load in the Wi-Fi is greater than the the metaphor threshold value, it will not be able to guarantee the required QoS of the VoIP. Fig.

8. Napoleon Defeat? QoS aware Voice Offloading algorithim flowchart. The designed algorithm is tested with the OPNET simulation. In this the UE has the access to both Wi-Fi hotspots and WiMAX. The Metaphor? The algorithm is James Essay tested under the heavy and normal loading conditions, so that we can maintain high MOS value for the VoIP and reducing the cost and the network traffic for ISP`s by utilizing the available Wi-Fi hotspots. Fig. 9. Performace of Wi-Fi during voice offloading under normal load. As shown in the metaphor Fig.

9 the Wi-Fi interface is activated and the MOS is maintained at high value when the load is normal which will not affect the QoS of VoIP. However, when the load on the Wi-Fi is higher than the threshold value the poe death's hand WiMAX is used and the MOS value is the metaphor maintained instead of automatically offloading to Wi-Fi network when there is heavy traffic and degrading the MOS value in turn reducing the what Quality Of Service of VoIP. Fig. The Metaphor? 10. QoS matained for at a time, VoIP under heavy load condition by enabling WiMAX. IV.

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK. This paper presented the issues in offloading the Voice calls in the HetNets and proposed QoS-aware voice offloading for the metaphor, VoIP. We have developed a WiMAX/Wi-Fi based HetNet simulation environment and shown that the Wi-Fi degrades the VoIP quality on automatic offloading for the Voice application like VoIP when there is a heavy load. The WiMAX is used to preserve the high quality when here is a high load and guarantee the needed QoS. Therefore, we have proposed a QoS-aware voice offloading algorithm that will decided whether to offload to the Wi-Fi or to continue the WiMAX usage, based on the data rate, thereby reducing the poe death's hand cost and reduce the resource battle on the licensed spectrum. The future work is to develop a SIP based Soft ‘Phone application, in which the SIP user agents that are embedded in the Smart-Phone as an application. This application is invoked when the user tries to the metaphor make a call and napoleon defeat, the mobile phone is configured to use the the metaphor SIP client for calls over what a Wi-Fi data network and making them available on the metaphor, mainstream platforms such as Android, IOS and Windows 8 Mobiles. [1] An Chan ; Soung Chang Liew ,’Performance of VoIP over Multiple Co-Located IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs’, Mobile Computing, IEEE Transaction , pp 1063 ‘ 1076, 2009. [2] Bernaschi, M. ; Cacace, F. ; Iannello, G. ; Vellucci, M. King James Essay? ”Mobility Management for the metaphor, VoIP on HeterogeneousNetworks: Evaluation of verbal definition, Adaptive Schemes’, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, pp 1035 – 1047 ,2007. [3] Bo Han, Pan Hui , V.S. Anil Kumar, Madhav V. Marathe , Jianhua Shao, and Aravind Srinivasan,’ Mobile Data Offloading through Opportunistic Communications and Social Participation’, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MOBILE COMPUTING, VOL.

11, NO. 5, pp 821-834, MAY 2012. [4] Fathi, H. ; Chakraborty, S.S. ; Prasad, R, ‘Optimization of Mobile IPv6-Based Handovers to Support VoIP Services in Wireless Heterogeneous Networks’. Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions,pp 260-270, 2007. [5] Kyunghan Lee, Joohyun Lee, Yung Yi, Injong Rhee, ‘Mobile Data Offloading: How Much Can Wi-Fi Deliver’?, IEEE Transactions On Networking, VOL. The Metaphor? 21, NO. 2, pp 536-551, APRIL 2013. [6] Lu Xiaofeng ; Hui Pan ; Lio,’Offloading mobile data from cellular networks through peer ‘ to ‘ peer Wi-Fi communication: A subscribe ‘ and ‘ send architecture’, P. IEEE Communication magazine,pp 35-46 June 2013. [7] Sok-Ian Sou, ‘Mobile Data Offloading With Policy and Charging Control in 3GPP Core Network”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 62, NO. 7,pp 3481-3486 SEPTEMBER 2013.

[8] Wanjiun Liao ; Jen-Chi Liu , ‘VoIP mobility in IP/cellular network internetworking’, Communications Magazine IEEE, pp 70-75 2000. [9] Yongmin Choi ; Hyun Wook Ji ; Jae-yoon Park ; Hyun-chul Kim,’A 3W network strategy for mobile data traffic offloading’ , Silvester, J.A. Communications Magazine, IEEE, pp 118-123 , 2011. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Computer Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on poe death's hand, hand, waiting to help you.

Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and the metaphor, you could have your customised Computer Science work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Computer Science essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in Heavy Metal example your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: QoS Aware Voice Offloading In Heterogenous Network For VoIP . The Metaphor? Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/computer-science/essay-qos-aware-voice-offloading-in-heterogenous-network-for-voip/ [05-10-17].

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