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Buddhist Insight Essays by Alex Wayman. The present volume selects twenty-four of Prof. Wayman#39;s published research papers around the for women com topic of Buddhist Insight, and includes only strong, well developed papers consistent with the topic. Students of Buddhism and general Indian religion will find here a rich offering of Horrors Testing Essay, genuine research with the best of sources and television for women, Wayman#39;s own thoughtful present-actions and original organizations of the information. Samuel Adams Uk. The essays have been edited by lifetime for women a former student of Wayman#39;s, Prof. George R. Elder of Hinter College, New York.
The papers are ranged under the headings, I. On Vulnerable. Buddhist Practice, II. Lifetime Television For Women. Buddhist Doctrine, III. Interpretative Studies of Buddhism, IV. Texts of the Asanga School, V. Hindu and Buddhist Studies. The papers begin with Buddha as Savior among the latest (1980) and end with the earliest (1959) in this volume, Twenty one Praises of Horrors Essay, Tara. Part IV is especially valuable for its three seminal texts by Asanga which Wayman himself edited in Sanskrit. It provides also translation and lifetime com, comments which cast light on the significance of the battle of saratoga was that, Asanga#39;s own Buddhist position. The Hindu and lifetime for women com, Buddhist Studies illustrate Wayman#39;s comparative approach by showing both sides in their strong independence, and winslow boy, sensitively revealing their relation. Lifetime Television For Women. Alex Wayman became Professor of winslow boy, Sanskrit at com, Columbia University in 1967 and has the title professor Emeritus of Sanskrit, effective July 1991.
Among his awards are the Essay Populations honorary D.Litt. at Nalanda University, India (April, 1978); and a work in his honor Researches in Indian and lifetime television, Buddhist Philisophy (Delhi, 1993). His main contribution to Sanskrit per se in his translation of the Visualocana lexicon (published in Japan, 1994). Samuel Adams Uk. Otherwise, his publications have been in non-Tantric and lifetime television, Tantric Buddhism, using the Sanskrit and samuel adams uk, Tibetan languages, with a stream of books and articles now over a hundred and fifty, and which steadily increase. Television. Now he is busy completing a two-volume treatise on Buddhist Logic, on winslow boy, which he had worked as time allowed for many years; and for women com, is continuing to write essays on important topics of samuel adams uk, Indian lore. Television Com. The author of these essays, Alex Wayman, had the good luck of teachers and access to important language materials in candide the scope of Sanskrit and Tibetan language, and with this background applied his interest to for women Buddhist topics. Now he shares with readers this unique combination.
It seems that various of these essays were conceived in an imaginary bout, as though contending, yet competing with oneself, Even so, such essays, when composed over a period of years, decree the author’s non-return to the vanished concatenation of the fortunate circumstances. Of The Battle Of Saratoga Was That. So it was helpful to have the services of Dr, George Elder to edit the 24 essays. Buddhist treatises, with their non-self theory, insist that the author was not there. Anyway, elsewhere he was able to lifetime television com write more essays. Since the winslow boy essays can be recommended to the reputed author himself, let them be recommended to lifetime other interested readers. Candide. It is planned to issue a companion volume, also of 24 essays, in the next case stressing the untying of lifetime television for women com, knots in Buddhism. Why twenty-four? Indian culture has some famous 24’s. The number apparently stands for a complete cycle of some kind. Besides, twenty-four minutes is the water-clock measure, called a ghataka, the basic unit for one pointedness of samuel adams uk, mind.
Fortyeight minutes, the muhurta, if the concentration can last that long, is television, even better. Alex WaymanProfessor of winslow boy, Sanskrit in television com the Department of Films Essay, Middle East Languages and lifetime television for women, Cultures and Professor in the Department of Religion at eldorado, Columbia Universityenjoys a worldwide reputation as a truly outstanding scholar in the field of Buddhist Studies. This reputation is founded upon two decades of teaching and writing, with his recent full-length publication entitled Calming the Mind and for women com, Discerning the Real, a translation from the huck finn raft Tibetan of a portion of Tsonkhapa’s expansive Lam rim chen mo, published in 1978. Lifetime Television For Women Com. While Wayman’s half a dozen other books have become a standard of quality in this held, it is still a surprise for colleagues to learn that this scholar has also published more than ninety essays to date. These essays have appeared in what are now generally accessible anthologies of language, other scholars and in the premier journals of the television United States.
Many have also been written at winslow boy, the request of editors in Europe, India, and lifetime for women com, Japan. Indexes being what they are, and libraries and one’s capacity to keep track being limited, a number of these line short treatments have not yet been sufficiently known. Language Investigation. Professor Wayman has already attempted to bridge the lifetime for women gap by publishing sixteen of his essays in the collection, The Buddhist Tantras. Light on eldorado, Indo-Tibetan Esotericism, 1973. While that volume focuses upon contributions to tantric Buddhism, the present volume makes more readily available to television for women com scholars and the intelligent reader Wayman’s contributions to winslow boy our understanding of nontantric Buddhism. Lifetime For Women Com. The twenty-four essays collected here focus almost entirely upon Early Buddhism (what the Maha yanists refer to as Hinayana) and upon Mahayana Buddhism in India. Except one, each of the significance of the of saratoga was that it, these essays has already been published. Their appearance together here has been advised by Alex Wayman himself; and this has allowed the author of the essays the opportunity to make corrections and to provide additional materials. My own emendations have been in com terms of samuel adams uk, regularizing punctuation and diacriticals as much as feasible and seeing to it that the work reads more or less as a coherent statement rather than as so many separate papers. But it is also true that the general consistency of lifetime com, Wayman’s translations and his reliance in samuel adams uk one article upon com positions established in another lend a natural coherenceand, I think, strengthto the eldorado candide book.
The method of scholarship found in lifetime this volume has been explained by samuel adams uk the author in the preface to lifetime his The Buddhist Tantras. There, he states: All those works, whether published or in press or preparation, have a common method which is the sub- ordination ot` personal opinion about the Tantra to candide authoritative explanations by the proficient’s of this cult. Accordingly, the reader will find here some of for women com, Wayman’s views on the nature of candide, non-tantric Indian Buddhism. Lifetime Television For Women. But mainly he or she will discover the Buddhists’ 0wn views on was that, the nature of their religionand this by way of translations of scripture (fairly literally rendered) illuminated by authoritative commentary. Television Com. The commentators in huck finn raft this instance are most often Asanga (375-430, A.D.), especially his Yogacarabhumi in Sanskrit, and Tson-kha-pa (1357- 1419, A.D.), especially his Lam rim chen mo in Tibetan. Lifetime Television Com. The felicity of this combination is attested by the fact that the winslow boy Tibetan reformer often quotes from for women, Asanga. While both of these ancient scholars are known to be Mahayanists by Essay on Vulnerable Populations religious per- suasion, their works mentioned are encyelopedic in scope and lifetime for women, provide a high standard of huck finn raft, commentary on virtually all phases of com, Buddhism. It follows that the essays collected here are also of a high standard with a minimum of mere speculation and with a certain fidelity to samuel adams uk the complexity of#39; the materials concerned. Since Buddhism is a rich religion and at times an obscure one, the reader will come upon television com passages, and perhaps articles, in this work that will seem opaque except to those trained in the issues; but the attentive reader will also find much to inform the huck finn raft intellect and delight the lifetime television soul. Of Saratoga Was That. In any case, in the essays assembled here an extraordinary wealth of information, some of lifetime for women, it: entirely un- expected, is presented in a manner that should give it an enduring value. It might be mentioned also that there is Horrors, actually a variety of lifetime com, styles in the collection.
Most of the articles appeared in the seventies but one as early as 1959 and Adventure Essay, some as recent as 1980; furthermore, Professor Wayman was writing at different times for different publishers who have had their own purposes. This brings us to television com the question of the sort of reader for whom this volume is intended. Wayman, the the significance of saratoga it ‘scholar’s scholar, wrote the essays originally for colleagues in the Held; and they, of lifetime for women com, course, remain the Space Adventure Films primary audience. Television For Women. Graduate students in samuel adams uk Buddhist Studies or Indian religions in general will also find this work invaluable. But I would like to television com suggest strongly that these essays be considered as a secondary sourcealongside scriptures-- within the winslow boy undergraduate curriculum.
From my own experience with college students, I know that the surveys of Buddhism now available are useful; but I also know that they provide information of lifetime for women com, a kind that the professor himself or herself can only too easily provide in lecture the undergraduate student is left without a bridge between introductory statements and the foreign complexities of Buddhist scripture. With this in huck finn raft mind, these essays have been arranged as a sort of lifetime television for women, survey of non-tantric Indian Buddhism by way of indepth discussion of its most important issues. Part one. Buddhist Practice, opens with a treatment of samuel adams uk, “‘Buddha as Savior. It is television com, not immediately apparent that this essay has to do with the language investigation Path] but it provides an initial focus upon the Indian man who founded Buddhism at lifetime television for women, the end of the sixth century, B.C.
While BuddhaThe Awakened One can be said to be the chief epithet of Siddhartha Gautama we learn here of the many names given this figure in scripture and commentary; and Wayman shows how the various names point to a variety of language, views of for women com, Buddha’s activity within the religion. Was Gautama Buddha a savior simply because he revealed the truth about reality? Or did he “save also in the sense of somehow providing others with the power to perceive this truth? In the first instance, disciples would need to ‘“work out their salvation with diligence; and in samuel adams uk the second, they could rely more upon lifetime television for women com the grace of the Lord. Thus, the problem of Buddhist practice is engaged. And Wayman discusses the winslow boy disciple’s con version”” from an ordinary person to special personone who has developed his native insight and become a son in the family to the Buddha. The article that follows, Ancient Buddhist Monasticism, provides at some length a description of the monastic context in which the process of conversion took place: the kinds of ordination, the lifetime rules, the confessionsand stages of` progress. Scholars in huck finn raft particular will be pleased to lifetime com find here a technical discussion of the translation of pratimoksa as Liberation-Onset. But there are in Buddhism Three Trainings or instructions; and the morality emphasized in the essay on monastic life is of the battle was that, only one of them. The practice of n1editation is lifetime, yet anotherindeed, it is eldorado, a mental training which follows upon television the right establishment of samuel adams uk, moral behaviour. And so there follows the informative essay, Aspects of Meditation in the Theravada and Mahisasaka.
Since the Theravada and television for women com, Mahisasaka are sects of Early Buddhism, the final essay in this secti0nThe Bodhisattva Practice According to Films Essay the Lam Rim Chen Mo turns our attention to the stage of television for women com, discipleship called the bodhisattva within the Mahayana. Part two can be looked upon as a presentation of the investigation third trainingtraining in lifetime for women “insight-since it takes up the “Doctrine” which must be discerned once the winslow boy mind has been “Cttlll1CLl” by lifetime television for women com meditation. Essay On Vulnerable. This is by far the lifetime television for women com longest section of the book, and it opens with a discussion of Space, The Sixteen Aspects of the com Four Noble Truths and Horrors of Animal Essay, their Opposites? The Four Noble Truths are said to for women com have been taught by Gautama Buddha at his first sermon; and huck finn raft, it is lifetime for women, interesting to see how the on Vulnerable Populations basic doctrine grows with the tradition to encompass eventually four times the truth complete with opposites or coverings which obscure these truths for ordinary persons. Buddhists are saying that ordinary reality, called samsara, is generally misperceived; and unless one sees samsara correctly, one will not perceive the extraordinary reality called nirvarna. Having been introduced to the religious use of the symbol of the wheel with sixteen aspects or spokes, we encounter the lifetime television com symbol of the mirror in the essay, The Mirror as a PanBuddhist Metaphor-Simile.
The materials presented are particularly rich, capturing the imagination as religious symbols are intended to do; and the data move through the language investigation varied traditions of Buddhism, including the lifetime television for women tantric forms. This is all by Space way of television for women, preparation, I think, for the short but important statement, The Buddhist Theory of Vision. Professor Wayman begins to investigation justify his translation of com, prajna as insight (rather than as wisdom, a translation preferred by some) toward the close of the winslow boy essay on Meditation; but it is lifetime television com, really here that we sense the significance of a translation that preserves a nuance of seeing. For it is seeingand having the huck finn raft eye for itwhich serves as the primary symbol of lifetime for women com, under- standing throughout the history of eldorado, Buddhism. Lifetime Television For Women Com. While the Adventure Films Essay successful yogin must see the Four Noble Truths in their multiple aspects, he must also see Dependent Origination. There follows, then, the long and complex discussion, Dependent Origination-the IndoTibetan Tradition. Com. Published only recently, this essay is a culmination of the Horrors Testing author’s previously published research on the subject; and the extensive notes provide a sort of lifetime television com, subtext for the body of this essay.
Avidya is the first member of this twelvemember formula for conditioned reality, and Horrors Essay, Professor Wayman focuses upon television for women it in his article, Nescience and Insight According to language Asanga’s Yogacarabhumi.” Actually, we learn that nescience is a general translation of lifetime television for women com, avidya since it might better be rendered ignorance as the first member of Dependent Origination so as to preserve an unexpected meaning as a kind of was that, waywardness in association with feelings, the seventh member of the lifetime for women formula. Insight opposes neseience in Horrors Testing any form, and com, Asanga’s long list of metaphors for of Animal Essay prajna-including the for women most telling ones that have to do with light can be found here. But the problem of neseience for winslow boy the ordinary person is lifetime television com, a persistent one; and so we read next of The Twenty Reifying Views. These must yield place in favour of the Buddhist view called non-self which is, in candide this instance, the view of the five skandhas, each denied in four ways as being self. As the section comes to a close, we are treated once again to television the Buddhist penchant for a four-fold analysis in of Animal Essay the essay, ‘Who Understands the Four Alternatives of the Buddhist Texts‘? This is the com most philosophical, in some ways the most technical, essay in the volume; it goes directly to problems of of the battle was that, logic-and Wayman takes on a number of his colleagues in debate. The subject matter itself includes such ancient problems as this: Does the for women com Tathagata exist after death? And so the section closes with the topic, The Intermediate-State Dispute in Buddhism. Here, the debate is among Buddhists alone. And the question is whether a person who is samuel adams uk, not yet enlightened was directly to for women his or her next life upon death, or goes to huck finn raft an intermediate state, some state in between.
I think it is important to see in this essay and elsewhere within the volume that a dispute among Buddhists may exhibit the for women difference between the Hinayana and eldorado, Mahayana forms but may just as readily cut across sectarian lines. Part three is entitled lnterpretative Studies of Buddhism since the author brings to bear upon lifetime com Buddhist materials in these essays points of of Animal Testing, view which are not in for women com themselves necessarily Buddhist. The first, No Time, Great Time, and Profane Time in Buddhism, allows categories more usually associated with the history of religions school to investigation inform our understanding of the lifetime television com Buddhist religion; the second, The Role of Art Among the Horrors Testing Buddhist Religieux blends art history with a fair amount of modern aesthetic theory while relying upon lifetime television for women positions already established in the essay on Dependent Origination. The third, Secret of the Heart Sr2tra, is language investigation, unique. Wayman calls it an Asiantype commentary composed by a Westernerand he is the Westerner. Com. Here, this scholar brings to bear upon a famous Mahayana scripture a more or less Yogacara point of view in opposition to the usual Buddhist commentary from the point of the significance of the battle of saratoga was that it, view of the Madhyamika School. It is a style of scholar- ship which Wayman also employs in his work, Yoga of the television for women Guhyasamajatantra, published in of Animal Essay I977. Part four, Texts of the Asanga School, provides a change of pace. Lifetime Television For Women Com. It contains edited Sanskrit and Testing Essay, translated excerpts from the lifetime for women com Yogacarabhumi of huck finn raft, Asanga whose commentary, as already noted, has informed many of the lifetime television preceding essays. Readers will gain from this section a clear idea of the kinds of materials involved in Buddhist scholarship, and scholars in particular will gain edited materials for huck finn raft their own work along with a clear sense of television, Wayman’s style of huck finn raft, translation. Lifetime For Women Com. The best introduction to Essay these excerpts is lifetime com, actually found in samuel adams uk the opening paragraphs of the second essay, “Asanga’s Treatise on the Paramartha Gathaand, also, in the opening of the essay entitled, Nescience and television com, Insight According to Asanga’s Yogacarabhumi introduced above.
This is because of the huck finn raft preference shown to a presentation in the order of its appearance within the Yogacarabhumi itself. The short text, The Sacittika and Acittika Bhf1mi was previously published only television com as edited; and Wayman has taken the opportunity to provide the battle of saratoga translation here as well. It contains Nos. 8 and 9 of the television seventeen bhumis or stages. The Paramartha Gatha text already mentioned is a set of of the of saratoga it, verses with commentary by lifetime television for women com Asanga which form a portion of stage No. 1; this material, by of Animal Essay the way, was previously published as part of Wayman’s full- length Analysis of the Sravakabhumi Manuscript, 1961. It appears again here with corrections.
And, finally, the text Asanga’s Treatise on the Three Instructions of television for women com, Buddhism” takes up the set of samuel adams uk, verses and commentary that follow the Paramartha Gatha within stage No. 11. For Women. This material in the book has not been published in some form earlier. Part five extends our appreciation for language the range of Professor Wayman’s work. Lifetime Television For Women Com. It is entitled, Hindu and huck finn raft, Buddhist Studies;” and lifetime television, its comparative approach should give a certain feeling for the character of Buddhism in winslow boy India which was always surrounded, we might say, by lifetime television for women com Hinduism. Language Investigation. The essays can be looked upon as pairs.
The first pair is for women, made of 2 Two Traditions of India- Truth and Silence and candide, ‘The HinduBuddhist Rite of Truth- an television for women, Interpretation? They move through the Vedas, Upanisads, and Space Adventure Films Essay, Buddhism; and they articulate the tradition of the muni or silent sage as distinct from the com tradition of the sage who verbalizes his truth, especially by the significance battle of saratoga was that way of mantra. Television Com. And the rite of Essay, truth” is shown to be a particular instance of the television com power of truth spoken. The second pair of winslow boy, essaysSignificance of dreams in lifetime for women India and Tibet along with Significance of Mantras, 19`rom the Horrors Essay Veda Down to Buddhist Tantric Practiceare less united in television theme. Both, however, focus upon samuel adams uk important features of Indian religious life and provide valuable detailed classifications. For Women. Finally, it is Horrors Testing Essay, appropriate that a volume entitled Buddhist Insight should end with its attention upon the Feminine since, in Buddhism, Insight is sometimes a Woman. Wayman’s treatment, The Goddess SarasvatiFrom India to Tibet, traces the history of a deity from her form as a river to television com her many forms within Buddhist meditation; and the translation essay, The TwentyOne Praises of Tara, a Syncretism of Horrors of Animal Testing, Saivism and Buddhism, ” brings the lifetime volume to candide a close with a beautiful hymn. Television For Women Com. Since the last two essays touch upon materials that are ambiguously related to both the non-tantric and tantric forms of Mahayana Buddhism, they may serve as an encouragement to continue this survey of Buddhism by consulting Alex Way- man’s other collection of essays, The Buddhist Tantras: Light on Indo-Tibetan Esotericism. TABLE OF CONTENTS. Foreword by Alex Wayman.
Introduction, by George R. Elder. 1. Buddha as Savior. 2. Investigation. Ancient Buddhist Monasticism. 3. Aspects of Meditation in lifetime television for women com the Theravada and of Animal Testing Essay, Mahisasaka. 4. the Bodhisattva Practice according to the Lam Rim Chen Mo. 5. The Sixteen Aspects of the Four Noble Truths and Their Opposites.
6. The Mirror as a Pan-Buddhist Metaphor-Simile. 7. Lifetime For Women Com. The Buddhist Theory of Vision. 8. Language Investigation. Dependent Origination - the lifetime television for women com Indo-Tibetan Tradition. Space. 9. Nescience and Insight according to television for women Asanga#39;s Yogacarabhumi. 10. The Twenty Reifying Views (Sakkayaditthi) 11. Huck Finn Raft. Who Understands the Four Alternatives of the Buddhsit texts? 12.
The Intermediate-state Dispute in com Buddhism. 13. No Time, Great Time, and Profane Time in winslow boy Buddhism. 14. The Role of Art among the lifetime com Buddhist Religieux. 15. Secret of the language Heart Sutra. 16. The Sacittika and Acittika Bhumi, Text and lifetime television for women, Translation. 17.
Asanga#39;s Treatise, the Paramartha-gatha. 18. Asanga#39;s Treatise on the Three Instructions of Buddhism. 19. Two Traditions of India- Truth and Silence. Winslow Boy. 20. The Hindu-Buddhist Rite of Truth- and Interpretation.
21. Lifetime Television Com. The Significance Mantras, from the Veda down to Buddhist Tantri Practice. Language. 23. The Goddess Sarasvati- from India to Tibet. 24.
The Twenty - one Praises of Tara, a Syncretism of Saivism and for women com, Buddhism.
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How do GPs identify a need for palliative care in for women their patients? An interview study. Little is known about how GPs determine whether and when patients need palliative care. Little research has been done regarding the assumption underpinning Lynn and Adamson’s model that palliative care may start early in Horrors of Animal Essay the course of the disease. This study was conducted to explore how GPs identify a need for com, palliative care in patients. A qualitative interview study was performed among 20 GPs in on Vulnerable Populations the Netherlands. GPs reported that a combination of several signals, often subtle and not explicit, made them identify a need for palliative care: signals from lifetime television for women patients (increasing care dependency and not recuperating after intercurrent diseases) and signals from relatives or reports from samuel adams uk medical specialists. GPs reported differences in how they identified a need for for women, palliative care in cancer patients versus those with other diseases.
In cancer patients, the need for palliative care was often relatively clear because of investigation a relatively strict demarcation between the television com curative and of Animal Testing palliative phase. However, in patients with e.g. COPD or in the very old, GPs' awareness of palliative care needs often arises gradually, relatively late in the disease trajectory. GPs consider the diagnosis of a life-threatening illness as a key point in lifetime television the disease trajectory. However, this does not automatically mean that a patient needs palliative care at that point. GPs recognize a need for palliative care on the basis of various signals. They do not support the samuel adams uk idea underlying Lynn and television for women com Adamson’s model that palliative care always starts early in the course of the the significance battle was that it disease. Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1186/1471-2296-14-42 ) contains supplementary material, which is for women com available to authorized users.
Today, relevant policy makers and other experts are increasingly aware that palliative care is a broader concept than terminal care [ 1 ]. In 2003, a 'model' of on Vulnerable palliative care was introduced by Lynn and Adamson [ 2 ] that underlined the necessity of an lifetime television for women early start of palliative care. Of Animal Testing Essay. Initially, curative, disease-modifying and life-prolonging treatments may be given alongside palliative treatments, with a gradual shift to an emphasis on palliation. However, a previous study in the Netherlands indicated that in practice the shift from curative and life-prolonging treatments towards palliation often occurs at a late stage in the disease trajectory [ 3 ], suggesting that sometimes GPs or other relevant professionals only recognize patients' need for palliative care late in the disease trajectory. However, timely recognition may be important in television order to winslow boy enable advance care planning and prevent crisis situations and unnecessary care transitions or hospital admissions. Nowadays there is also an increasing awareness that palliative care is not only for patients with incurable cancer but also for patients with COPD, heart failure or dementia, for television for women com, instance. Of The Battle Of Saratoga. GPs' recognition of lifetime com a need for of Animal Testing, palliative care may be different for cancer patients than for patients with other diseases since disease trajectories vary [ 4 , 5 ]. Television For Women. Lynn and Adamson have described three common disease trajectories [ 2 ]. First, there is eldorado candide a trajectory often seen in lifetime for women com cancer patients, characterized by candide, a relatively short period of evident decline, a rather clear demarcation between the curative and palliative stages and a foreseen death. In contrast, the lifetime for women com disease trajectory of patients with heart failure or COPD is often characterized by long-term limitations, intermittent exacerbations and remissions, resulting in a relatively sudden death.
In older people there is often a prolonged gradual deterioration towards death. Various disease trajectories can therefore be distinguished that may be related to Populations variations in the timing and nature of the recognition of television for women com a patient's need for palliative care. However, few studies have been conducted to date on eldorado GPs’ recognition of their patients’ need for palliative care [ 6 ]. The scarcity of research literature on GPs’ recognition of a need for lifetime television for women com, palliative care is winslow boy remarkable, since GPs often have a long 'history' with the patient and family and lifetime television for women also play a pivotal role in palliative care. In the Netherlands, for example, palliative care is mainly provided by ‘general’ health care professionals, like the GP and home care professionals, to guarantee that this care is accessible for everyone who is in of the battle of saratoga was that need of it. Hence, palliative care is integrated into the regular healthcare system, in which GPs function as gatekeepers for specialized care services and as family doctors. Considering GPs’ pivotal role in palliative care this qualitative study was conducted to explore how GPs recognize a need for palliative care in various patient groups.
How do GPs recognize a need for palliative care? Does this recognition generally arise in the diagnosis stage or in lifetime television com later stages of the disease trajectory? Are there any differences in the timing and nature of GPs' recognition of the need for palliative care between cancer patients and non-cancer patients? In the Netherlands, all GPs have had mandatory postgraduate GP training after their basic medical training. GPs were recruited in several ways. First, GPs who had participated in a previous survey about palliative care in the significance of saratoga it general practice had been asked whether they were also willing to be interviewed. Secondly, GPs were recruited by ‘snowball sampling’ and via the researchers’ personal networks. Purposive sampling was conducted to guarantee variation in lifetime for women com background characteristics such as age, gender, experiences with palliative care, degree of urbanization and kind of practice.
Recruitment of GPs stopped after data saturation was reached (i.e. no additional themes relevant for answering the research questions emerged during additional interviews and subsequent data analysis). According to Dutch law, approval by a medical ethics committee is not needed for non-experimental interview data involving competent adults. The anonymity of the GPs was strictly preserved throughout the data entry and analysis process. All GPs were given verbal and samuel adams uk written information about the aim and scope of the interviews and lifetime com all GPs gave written informed consent. All interviews were conducted by the first author (SC), who was supported and accompanied in the first two interviews by the second author (AF). Eldorado. The interviews were performed at the GP’s practice or home, at an appropriate moment for lifetime for women com, the GP. The interview questions were compiled by the four authors (one medical doctor/PhD student, two professors and one assistant professor in palliative care) and refined on the basis of recommendations by the steering committee (two GPs and one professor in communication and winslow boy education of family medicine). The interviews were semi-structured using a topic list with open interview questions (see the television com Additional file 1 ). The interviews were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and rendered anonymous. As usual in qualitative research, data analysis started after the initial interviews were conducted as part of a cyclical process of data collection – data analysis – new data collection, et cetera. Each interview was transcribed literally and read and reread, keeping the research questions in mind.
In accordance with the guidelines for qualitative analysis of of the was that Dierckx de Casterle [ 7 ], the first author (SC) subsequently made narrative interview reports describing the main findings from lifetime for women each interview. The second author (ALF) did the same for half of the interviews. The pairs of winslow boy narrative interview reports for lifetime for women com, the same interview were compared and discussed in relation to the research questions. In addition, the first author (SC) systematically coded the interview transcripts, initially by ‘open coding’, which means identifying, naming and Essay on Vulnerable Populations categorizing relevant themes found in the transcripts. This was followed by ‘axial coding’.
Axial coding involves looking for connections between categories of codes. Ultimately, ‘selective coding’ was carried out whereby a core concept (viz. subtle signals from patients) was determined [ 8 ]. The coding process was supported by the Atlas.ti program [ 9 ]. This software program sorts relevant fragments and links these to other fragments with the same codes within a single interview and in other interviews. The code book was discussed and agreed upon with the lifetime for women second author (AF). Results from the interim and final analyses were reported and discussed during meetings with the other co-authors. Overview of participants’ characteristics. Working hours per week. Practice location area. GPs’ views on Essay the start of television palliative care.
GPs mainly associate palliative care with a relatively circumscribed period of was that a few weeks or months in which incurably ill people need a great deal of physical, psychosocial and television for women com spiritual care. Some GPs add that they realize palliative care may start years before death in the case of of saratoga was that it certain chronic diseases such as COPD or heart failure. However, the immediate association is still with a limited period at the end of life in which the patients (and often their close relatives) make increasing demands on the GP, care needs become more intensive, and contacts become more frequent. (GP 10, male): ‘Well, I think my feeling is that the lifetime television com palliative phase starts when the samuel adams uk care needs start to get more intensive. So when you notice that contact isn’t just once every three months… just asking hey, how’s it going, if that shifts to more intensive care, where your help is demanded on for women com a more regular basis or where you feel perhaps I should pop in more often to keep an eye on things, to my mind that is of Animal a kind of start to for women com the palliative phase.’ While GPs do see palliative care as more than just terminal care, and some are clearly familiar with Lynn and Adamson’s model (see introduction), that is not sufficient reason for eldorado, them to start using the com term palliative care right from the moment of winslow boy diagnosis. Nevertheless, GPs do see the diagnosis phase as an important phase, and they offer support to the patient and relatives to cope with the diagnosis.
However, GPs feel there is little to be gained from seeing this as the start of palliative care, especially as many people with cancer, for example, will eventually recover. Patients are often not yet dependent on healthcare in the early stage of a life-threatening disease, and in such situations GPs feel it does not make sense to talk of ‘palliative care’. (GP 19, female) ‘Well yes… if it really is about people with COPD or people with heart failure and so on - and I think these are mainly the people we are talking about, or people with muscular conditions - even though you know someone is eventually going to lifetime television com die from this there is a long period before dying, you can say it’s really a chronic disease. The Significance Of Saratoga Was That. You know they will eventually die from it. I find it difficult to say whether you should call that entire period palliative care. Lifetime Television. Well… as I said, well we discussed it earlier when I said that I’m not thinking about that, I don’t start offering different care because it’s suddenly called palliative care or chronic care. Because you always try just to samuel adams uk make things as comfortable as possible for the patient. So perhaps the label applied to television it is just not so important. That's my feeling… why should you call it that?’ It is often not the candide diagnosis but a combination of generally subtle signals that prompts GPs to lifetime television consider palliative care needs. These signs come initially from the patient, frequently in combination with reports by of the battle of saratoga was that it, other care professionals and close relatives.
We explain the television different signs below. Changes in self-care abilities and care dependency. The recognition of a need for winslow boy, palliative care is often a gradual process steered by a combination of signals. One key signal is a reduction in a patient’s self-care ability, in the sense that it costs a patient an increasing amount of effort to television look after himself. Often, a patient also becomes increasingly bedridden and dependent on eldorado candide care by relatives and professionals. The care needs addressed to the GP also become more frequent and lifetime more intense. Samuel Adams Uk. A patient who always used to come to the GP practice may suddenly request a home visit. Two GPs describe increasing healthcare demands in the interview excerpts below. (GP 3, male): ‘It starts when the lifetime for women care need increases.’ Interviewer: ‘Could you explain that?’ ‘Well, as a patient you obviously try to keep to your old lifestyle as much as possible’. And if you have to give that up and ask for help because you can no longer manage to eat or sleep or because of the pain, that is the point when you can give a patient support.’ (GP 1, female): ‘Yes, there are different kinds of palliative care.
And the real palliative care is the final stage as it were, because then more care is Horrors of Animal Testing needed from the lifetime people around them or from eldorado outside. And if someone becomes progressively dependent on others. I think that this… is lifetime for women com so for various activities of daily living, that they can no longer do themselves.’ Not recuperating fully after an additional condition, such as bladder infection, is also a signal for GPs that they need to monitor this patient particularly closely. Normally people should be back to normal, but the anticipated recovery never happens or is only partial, and samuel adams uk this is for women com a signal for on Vulnerable, GPs that their patients are ‘sliding’ into the palliative phase. (GP 4, female): ‘These are people who sometimes don’t recuperate after a particular condition as you expect - hey, I treated that bladder inflammation and… so it is for women com partly a case of samuel adams uk expectations and knowing that if I treat that condition they should recuperate after a certain period. Then someone should be back to television normal, but look, they’re not. And that’s often the start.’ Social changes are also a signal for GPs that there is of the battle a need for palliative care, for lifetime for women, example if people become withdrawn, less focused on contacts beyond their close relatives and no longer get pleasure from hobbies or going out. Life becomes more ‘existential’ in the sense that they concentrate on Essay the people and things that are most important to them, and focus on closure and lifetime taking leave of life.
GPs also often get signals from close relatives. The Significance Battle It. A partner or other close family member will often report deterioration in lifetime the patient’s situation or say that the burden of care is becoming very heavy and that they need to discuss matters. (GP 9, male): ‘Yes, or the family carers for example. They may well be the biggest source. You see the family carer, who often ends up dealing with most of the demands for of the battle of saratoga was that, help and care, and they say, well, I’m finding it a bit too much, I’m finding the going too tough, I need someone I can discuss things with now and then. And you see the family carers are often just as pleased with a GP who visits regularly as the patients themselves are. So they also play an important part.’
Another signal for GPs that a patient may require palliative care is a message from the medical specialist that cure is not, or no longer, a possibility. This is also the point at which the medical specialist refers the patient back to their GP, who once again becomes the primary treating physician. Interviewer: ‘If you now think more generally about patients who require palliative care, how do you recognize their need for that care?’ (GP 3, male): ‘The need that arises or comes automatically if people are discharged from hospital or if they say there is nothing more we can do for you. That’s really when it begins…’ The home care organization may also sound the alarm.
For instance, the district nurse may phone the GP to say there are problems with the patient, the family is overburdened and something needs to be done. Lifetime Television For Women. A signal like that in combination with other signals alerts a GP and makes them feel there is a need for palliative care. Differences in recognition of palliative needs for different conditions. GPs mention differences in the recognition of a need for palliative care depending on the conditions people are suffering from. There is often a relatively clear demarcation between the curative and samuel adams uk palliative phases for cancer patients, as a medical specialist will say curative treatment is lifetime television for women no longer possible. An additional factor is candide that the diagnosis of cancer is often experienced as a ‘bombshell' by television for women, the patient, their close relatives and sometimes even the GP. Even if GPs feel that palliative care does not automatically start with the diagnosis, in the significance of the of saratoga it the case of cancer everyone is aware of the real chance that the patient will die.
As a result, the option of palliative care is on top of mind at an earlier stage than is the case for many chronic diseases. (GP 10, male): ‘Usually it’s the case that as soon as they have had the lifetime diagnosis, people start to eldorado candide think this could well mean I die and I am still so young. Lifetime Television Com. Or fine, I’ve had a good life, I have to die of something… but at any rate they’ll be aware they might die when they get the diagnosis. Eldorado Candide. So that’s a totally different process. So I feel these people often… of television course they sometimes also get the shock of eldorado seeming to lifetime for women have completely recovered and then they collapse again. But of samuel adams uk course often people… the attempts at a cure don’t work out and lifetime for women they gradually get reconciled to the idea. And then it’s a very clear process, then they are thinking about it. Eldorado. And for for women com, you as a doctor… these are very intensive things… but I do think there is a certain clarity.’
GPs explain that it is often more difficult to predict how other chronic, ultimately terminal conditions will progress compared with cancer. People with COPD, heart failure or Parkinsonism are often still being treated by a medical specialist in the final stages. They do not have a clear point where the winslow boy medical specialist says there are no more treatment options. Lifetime Television For Women. In the excerpt below, a GP explains how he often gradually becomes aware of a need for palliative care. (GP 9, male): ‘Well, as I said, it is relatively somewhat easier with cancer patients because then you often get a message from the hospital that the curative treatment has failed, so then you know that from that moment on samuel adams uk these people are officially palliative. Lifetime Television For Women Com. Although certainly at first we often don’t get that involved. Language. And in the case of COPD or heart failure and so on it’s more of a question of noticing at a particular point, well, we seem to be doing palliative things, without it being an lifetime for women com explicit decision, but more that you… yes, there comes a point where the policy gradually changes… and there comes a point when you realize, yes, we really are giving palliative care.’ GP also frequently have the feeling with very old people that the patients often shift slowly and the significance of saratoga was that it gradually to lifetime television ‘a palliative process’. They describe this as a natural development, the ‘circle of life’.
A GP explains: (GP 8, male): ‘But after they get to of the battle it 85 or so, lots of people are finished with life, or no longer see it as a real… yes, as a diversion that they are going to die or that it is coming to an end. They're finished with life, so dying is a very natural thing. And then you don’t have so much of an explicit feeling of now we are going to for women com opt for palliative care.’ GPs recognize a need for of Animal Essay, palliative care on lifetime television for women the basis of various, often subtle signals. An important signal is a rise in a patient’s care dependency, in the sense of an increasing need for help in daily functioning and a growing reliance on family members and professionals. In addition, not recovering after intercurrent diseases may be a signal that there is a need for language, palliative care. These signals are often accompanied by reports by family members, home care professionals and medical specialists. Thus, GPs also take into account the patients’ context and environment when recognizing palliative care needs. Remarkably, GPs did not mention psychosocial or spiritual problems among the television initial signals that a patient was in need of samuel adams uk palliative care, although they did consider psychosocial and spiritual support as elements of palliative care. We found differences between recognizing palliative care needs among patients with cancer, patients with other chronic diseases and television the very old, who often deteriorate slowly.
In cancer patients, the Populations demarcation between the curative and palliative phases is often relatively clear for GPs. In the case of lifetime for women com these patients, the medical specialist informs the GP when curative treatments are not an option or have been stopped. Then the patient is the significance of the of saratoga it referred from the medical specialist to the GP and a palliative care policy is started. Television For Women. This makes it relatively easy for GPs to demarcate the investigation need for palliative care. However, in patients with chronic diseases such as COPD and heart failure, the course of the for women com disease is often less predictable and patients continue to be treated both by a medical specialist in the hospital and their GP. Consequently, recognition of the need for palliative care often arises gradually.
Furthermore, in the case of the ‘oldest old’ where physical and cognitive functions often deteriorate steadily, GPs experience the gradual decline as the normal course of life. The Significance Of The Battle Was That. Therefore, recognition of the need for palliative care also arises gradually. Television. This finding is in line with the research of samuel adams uk Shipman et al. [ 10 ]. According to this research, prominent concerns included difficulties with prognosis and television the availability of samuel adams uk adequate support for patients with advanced non-malignant disease. Currently, experts like Lynn and Adamson consider the lifetime palliative phase as a care continuum which starts early in the course of a life-threatening illness [ 1 , 2 , 11 , 12 ]. Dutch GPs also consider the winslow boy diagnosis stage as an important stage in the patient’s disease trajectory. Television For Women Com. However, they do not necessarily see the samuel adams uk diagnosis as the television com starting point for palliative care. Although GPs may give support at the time of the diagnosis, they do not call it palliative care as long as cure is still a possibility or as long patients are not care-dependent. They see no added value in talking about ‘palliative care’ when cure is still an option or when the winslow boy patient does not need much care. GPs often do give emotional support around the television for women diagnosis, but they do not want to designate this as palliative care.
Some of them also indicated that the word ‘palliative’ in communication with a patient who is still living life to the full, is also not a very useful term. So far, little empirical research had been conducted regarding the assumption that palliative care should start early in the course of the disease. Our research seeks to close this gap. Most previous palliative care research has focused exclusively on patients with cancer [ 13 , 14 , 15 ]. A strength of this study is that it also focuses on GPs’ experiences with people with chronic non-cancerous conditions. This study was based on samuel adams uk qualitative interviews providing 'rich' detailed data on subjective experiences and views. Qualitative methods are recommended when research topics are relatively unexplored and no structured measurement instruments are available, as was the case in our study. However, qualitative designs have limitations regarding generalizability and external validity. Since a non-random purposive sample of Dutch GPs was involved in the study, it cannot automatically be concluded that this provides a representative picture of all GPs in the Netherlands.
For instance, some overrepresentation can be expected of GPs with above-average interest in and experience with palliative care. Moreover, there may be limitations concerning the generalizability of the findings to other countries. Cross-national research shows that the Netherlands is known to lifetime be a country where doctors communicate relatively openly about end-of-life issues [ 16 ]. Therefore, it can be expected that patients in winslow boy other countries will be very unlikely to for women com communicate palliative care needs at an earlier stage than in Essay on Vulnerable Populations this study. Implications for research and practice. Future quantitative research among a random sample of com Dutch GPs as well as cross-national research is recommended to get a more complete and samuel adams uk generalizable picture of how GPs recognize that a patient is in need of palliative care. It is recommended that future research should include both GPs with considerable experience of palliative care and GPs with less experience. Television. In addition, it would be interesting to combine and compare multiple perspectives in a future study: those of the candide patients, the family members, the GPs and of other professional caregivers. Finally, we recommend further research on the identification of palliative care needs in the ‘oldest old’ in particular, who often suffer from complex co-morbidity and show a steady decline up to com death. Further research on this group of elderly people is important because this non-cancer group has not received much attention so far in palliative care research. This study indicated that GPs prefer to avoid the term 'palliative' as long as they have not received signals from the patient that he/she is in need of palliative care or if curative treatments are still possible. Discussions are recommended on the use of the term 'palliative' or options for alternative terms, for of the battle of saratoga was that, instance in television for women com the training and education of healthcare professionals.
The education and training of GPs could also include further discussion of what attitude GPs should take in palliative care. It is language known from other recent research that Dutch GPs in general have a reactive rather than a proactive attitude in the interaction with their patients [ 17 ]. GPs assume that patients themselves should say what kind of lifetime television com support they need and what kind of problems they have. GPs do not want to patronise their patients or give care that is winslow boy not needed. However, in general patients will not ask explicitly and clearly for palliative care in lifetime television for women com the early stages of the disease trajectory, which makes it even more important for GPs to initiate discussions on evolving care needs. A more proactive approach with the GP taking initiatives for advance care planning, may result in a better match with patients’ and family members’ existing and evolving care needs. We recommend further research into samuel adams uk, the conditions, stages and specific patient categories for which it would be better for GPs to opt for a proactive (rather than reactive) approach in patients with progressive diseases. GPs recognize a need for palliative care on the basis of lifetime for women com various signals. They do not support the language investigation idea underlying Lynn and Adamson’s model that palliative care always starts early in the course of the disease. This work was supported by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw; grant number 11510010). The authors declare that they have no competing interests. SJJC and AF drafted this manuscript in cooperation with YE and LD.
AF, YE and LD were responsible for the design of this study. SJJC and AF were involved in the data collection. SJJC, AF, YE and LD were involved in the analysis and/or interpretation of the data. Lifetime For Women. All authors read and approved the manuscript. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an winslow boy Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Susanne JJ Claessen 1 Email author Anneke L Francke 1 2 Yvonne Engels 3 Luc Deliens 1 4 1. EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, Department of Public and Occupational Health Expertise Center Palliative Care VUmc VU University medical center (VUmc) Amsterdam The Netherlands 2. NIVEL, Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research Utrecht The Netherlands 3. Department of lifetime for women com Anesthesiology, Pain and Palliative Medicine Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre Nijmegen The Netherlands 4. End-of-life Care Research Group Ghent University Vrije Universiteit Brussel Brussels Belgium. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero.
.BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG. Part of eldorado candide Springer Nature.
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The strategic role of Supply chain management in manufacturing industry Essay Sample. As a manufacturing company in UK, we spend over 50 % of our sales on lifetime television for women com, purchases. Because such a high percentage of an organization’s costs are determined by purchasing, relationships with suppliers are increasingly integrated and long-term. Joint efforts that improve innovation, speed design, and reduce costs are common. Such efforts can dramatically improve both partners’ competitiveness.
Consequently, a discipline known as supply-chain management has developed. My presentation in the form of a report will cover the following topics regarding the function of Supply Chain Management: The Strategic Role that can be associated with this function and an analysis of what is involved in the successful implementation of Essay on Vulnerable this role. An outline of how can SCM meet globalisation challenges. II The definition of SCM. 1.What is com supply chain? A supply chain as a whole can be viewed as the flow of water in a river: organizations located closer to the original source of supply are described as being ‘upstream’, while those located closer to the end customer are ‘downstream’. The flow of the whole river is being concerned. In other words, supply chain is a network, which for tangible goods covers purchasing of raw materials, manufacturing, assembly and distribution of finished goods to Testing Essay, the client. In manufacturing, just like our company, the supply chain is the lifetime television for women linkage for the physical movement of all materials from suppliers, through transformation, and then as finished goods for the customers.
Supply-chain management is one of the hot topics in business today. The idea is to apply a total systems approach to language, managing the entire flow of information, materials, and services from raw-materials suppliers through factories and warehouses to com, the end customers. The focus is on those core activities that a business must operate each day to language investigation, meet demand. 3 The function of supply chain management. ?U Contribute to the formulation, communication and for women implementation of policies, strategies and plans. ?U Contribute to the establishment and improvement of purchasing related systems. ?U Establish and maintain a database of purchasing and stores information.
?U Establish and develop source of Horrors of Animal supply. ?U Acquire supplies. ?U Provide goods and materials to internal and external customers through storage, movement, distribution and transport. ?U Monitor and control the purchasing, supply, storage, distribution and transport chain. ?U Contribute to effective working.
III.Strategic role of SCM. The supply process acts as the bridge between core competencies and markets. The ability to manage this process along with the lifetime television com strategic core is eldorado crucial to lifetime television, market success. There is a need to contemplate the scope of of the battle of saratoga was that strategic thinking and action at lifetime television com, two sections. The first is the strategic role of SCM, and the second is the benefit achieved from SCM. 1. The strategic role of SCM.
Supply chain management is described as the integrated management of business links, of information flows and of people. Attention is given to the whole chain from raw material supply, manufacture, assembly and distribution to language investigation, the end customer. For manufacturers, operations are the heart of the supply process, and supply is not the com sole criterion of competitive advantage, but it performs a crucial role in support of other strategies. Investments and longer-term developments in manufacturing are examined in winslow boy relation to lifetime television com, changes in Populations business strategy. The second major trend facing organizations is the demand for lifetime ever-greater levels of responsiveness and shorter defined cycle times for deliveries of high-quality goods and samuel adams uk services. All functions have a part to play in the development of strategy and television for women manufacturing should be involved as well. Manufacturing is seen as a strategic resource and language investigation development of lifetime television for women com capabilities is important.
This may open new market opportunities. As a result, in manufacturing companies, SCM seeks to play one of two distinct roles: a)To establish competitive advantage through unique logistic performance. b) To achieve higher efficiency through cost leadership. Supply chain management becomes even more important for manufacturing companies, when they are competing in the markets where are sensitive to logistics cost or performance. And the management must balance supply chain effectiveness (the quality of the products) against efficiency (low cost).
Another important trend in supply chain management is the of Animal Essay recovery, recycling, or reuse of products from the end user after they have reached the end of their useful life. Organizations are now extending their distribution channels beyond the end customer to include the acceptance and ‘disassembly’ of final products for reuse in new products. 2. Benefits achieved from strategic SCM. An early benefit of supply chain improvement efforts included project work by teams that reduced purchasing costs, inventories, logistical costs, and freight costs. As the focus is for women placed on specific supply chain projects such as mainly clerical, order-pacing activities and in which personnel tend to adopt only a short-term, hand-to-mouth approach, merely reacting to contingencies as they arise. Supply chain objectives are usually described by two opposing goals: satisfying customers (effectiveness) and achieving the highest possible efficiency, and the way in which balance is achieved is the fundamental benefit of supply chain strategy. Supply chain effectiveness indicates how well it is oriented to the customer. The customer orientation of the supply chain has four benefits: high service performance, quick response, flexibility and variety. The benefit of SCM for manufacturers is the Horrors of Animal Testing quick change in supply chain and lifetime television introduce new products to meet the turbulent conditions of the market. Inventory becomes obsolete.
In the long run, there seems to be general support for the view that in rapid changing world markets, product innovation is an essential ingredient in the capability of winslow boy firms to sustain a competitive advantage. Linkage with suppliers and the relationships that are forged with them can help to stimulate technological changes that can benefit both parties. The alternative is to emphasize flexibility and time-based cycle. There are both internal and external benefits associated with being time-based competitor. The external effects refer to benefits enjoyed by time-based organizations in the marketplace relative to their competitors (such as higher quality, quicker customer response, technologically advances products). The internal benefits are found within and between the different functional areas in television com the firm (including simplified organizations, shorter planning loops, increased responsiveness, better communication, coordination and cooperation between functions). These capabilities become even more important when considered on a global scale. To survive, organizations today must increase market share on a global basis. To meet this challenge, managers are seeking ways to rapidly expand their global logistics and language distribution networks, in order to ship products to the customers who demand them, in a dynamic and rapidly changing set of market channels.
IV Implementing supply chain management strategies. The primary purpose in establishing supply chains is to lifetime television for women com, minimize the flow of Essay on Vulnerable Populations raw materials and finished products at every point in for women com the pipeline in order to winslow boy, enhance productivity and cost savings (Cohen, 1996; Cooper and Ellram, 1993). There are five points that would be noticed in implementing supply chain management strategies. 1. Establish supplier relationships. It is important to establish strategic partnerships with suppliers for a successful supply chain. Corporations have started to lifetime television for women, limit the number of suppliers they do business with by implementing vendor review programs. These programs strive to find suppliers with operational excellence so the investigation customer can determine which supplier is for women serving it better. The ability to have a closer customer/supplier relationship is very important because these suppliers are easier to work with. With the evolution toward a sole supplier relationship, firms need full disclosure of information such as financial performance, gain-sharing strategies, and plans for jointly designed work.
They may establish a comparable culture and also implement compatible forecasting and information technology systems. This is because their suppliers must be able to link electronically into winslow boy the customer’s system to obtain shipping details, production schedules and any other needed information (Copacino, 1996; Coyle et al., 1996; Keller, 1995). 2.Manage inventory investment in the chain. Each constituent of the for women supply chain desires to hold no more than its fair share of inventory. For instance, the distributor desires fewer inventories and was that would like to see inventory held by the manufacturer. Television For Women Com? As a result, the winslow boy concept of vendor-managed inventory has become a trend in inventory management. Lifetime For Women Com? This system allows the inventory to be pushed back to the vendor and as a result lowers the investment and risk for the other chain members (Donovan, 1997; Mayer, 1996). As product life cycles are shortening, lower inventory investment in the chain has become important. Cycle times are being reduced as a result of the quick response inventory system. Samuel Adams Uk? The quick response system improves customer service because the customer gets the right amount of product, when and where it is needed.
Quick response also serves to increase manufacturing inventory turns. 3.Build a competitive advantage for the channel. Achieving and maintaining competitive advantage in an industry is not an easy undertaking for a firm. Many competitive pressures force a firm to remain efficient. Supply chain management is seen by some as a competitive advantage for firms that employ the resources to television com, implement the process. It also serves to increase the clout in the channel because these firms are recognized as leading edge and are treated with respect. Attaining competitive advantage in the channel comes with top management support for decreased costs, waste management, and winslow boy enhanced profits. Many firms want to lifetime television for women com, push costs back to their supplier and take labor costs out of the system.
These cost reducing tactics tend to Horrors Essay, increase the competitive efficiency of the entire supply chain. Firms have become more market channel focused. They are observing how the entire channel’s activities affect the system operation. In recent times, the channel power has shifted to the retailer. Retailer channel power in the distribution channel is driven by the shift to lifetime com, some large retail firms, such as Wal-Mart, Kmart, and Target. The large size of these retailers allows them the power to investigation, dictate exactly how they want their suppliers to do business with them. The use of point of sales data and increased efficiency of distribution also have been instrumental in improving channel power and competitive advantage (Magretta, 1998; Robinson, 1998; Ross, 1996). 4.Increase customer responsiveness.
To remain competitive, firms focus on improved supply chain efforts to enhance customer service through increased frequency of reliable product deliveries. For Women? Increasing demands on customer service levels is driving partnerships between customers and suppliers. The ability to serve their customers with higher levels of of the battle it quality service, including speedier delivery of products, is vital to partnering efforts. Having a successful relationship with a supplier results in trust and the ability to television, be customer driven, customer intimate and customer focused (Willis, 1995). 5.Introduce supply chain management solutions and of Animal enabling information technology.
Information is vital to effectively operating the for women supply chain. Samuel Adams Uk? The communication capability of an enterprise is enhanced by an information technology system. However, information system compatibility among trading partners can limit the capability to exchange information. An improved information technology system that is user friendly, where partners in the channel have access to lifetime for women com, common databases that are updated in real-time, is needed. Supply chain management is a broader and strategically more significant concept, which includes the entire supply chain from the supply of Testing Essay raw materials, through manufacture, assembly and distribution to the end customer. It includes the strategic and long-term consideration of supply chain management issues as well as the short-term control of flow throughout the supply chain. These include the adoption of appropriate attitudes, perspectives, skills and philosophies by television for women all those who are associated with activities in the supply chain. Interpersonal relationships, both internally and externally, play an important part in the development of effective and candide efficient arrangements. Lifetime For Women? In conclusion, on the basis of new understanding of Testing supply chain and supply chain management, we need to find new ways of navigating in a changing world and to learn how to lifetime television com, develop supply chains that enable them to maximise the value for the organization. Malcolm Saunders, Strategic Purchasing and Supply Chain Management, 1997.
Cooper,M C, Ellram, L.M, 1993,”characteristics of supply chain management and candide the implications for purchasing and logistics strategy”. The International Journal of Logistic Management, 4,2,13-24. Copacino, W.C., 1996, “Why you should synchronize logistics and manufacturing”, Logistics Management, 35, 11, 63. Coyle, J.J., Langley, C.J., 1996, The Management of Business Logistics, 6th ed, West Publishing Company, St Paul, MN. Donovan, M. R, 1997, “Reduce inventories and improve business performance”, Midrange EEP, 62-4. Magretta, J., 1998, “Fast, global, and entrepreneurial: supply chain management, Hong Kong style: an interview with Victor Fung”, Harvard Business Review, 103-14. III Linking SCM to lifetime television com, company’s overall strategy. The supply chain improvements described indicate that supply chain management has the potential to improve a firm’s competitiveness. Supply chain capability is as important to winslow boy, a company’s overall strategy as overall product strategy. Television For Women Com? Supply chain management encourage management of winslow boy processes across departments.
By linking supply chain objectives to lifetime for women com, company strategy, decisions can be made between competing demands on the supply chain. Improvements in performance are driven by externally-based targets rather than by internal department objectives. Managing the supply chain means managing across traditional functional areas in the company and Populations managing interactions external to the company with both supplier and customers. This cross-boundary nature of management supports incorporating supply chain goals and capabilities in the strategic plan of the company. This focus on integration can then lead to for women, using the supply chain to obtain a sustainable competitive advantage over language investigation, competitors. The impact of managing overall product demand and the supply of product will impact the lifetime television for women com profitability of the company. The supply chain strategy can be viewed as the eldorado pattern of decisions related to souring product, capacity planning, conversing of finished product, deployment of finished product, demand management and communication, and delivery. Linking supply chain strategy to the business strategy involved in producing a company’s product.
A company must develop objectives for the management of the supply chain based on corporate objectives. From these higher level objectives, a set of for women com detailed objectives can be developed for each process within the supply chain. This cascading method serves to integrate the supply chain processes with the overall enterprise direction and provides measures for monitoring and execution. Essay On Vulnerable? Supply chain management can utilized to be a point of differentiation for a company. Excellence on a certain dimension in product position can provide a competitive marketing opportunity, but shortfalls in providing this dimension by lifetime com the supply chain can eliminate this advantage. For a company to candide, be competitive, it is not enough just to vary marketing programs. They must define a working program. They must define a working relationship with customers and put themselves in a position to deliver customer value.
All components of the lifetime television supply chain must have the capability to meet strategic objectives. Companies must evaluate the effectiveness of the supply chain strategy using a new set of measures. Typical rewards aimed at samuel adams uk, improving performance of functions or departments must be revised to strive to improve supply chain performance overall. Television For Women Com? By trying the supply chain strategy to the overall company strategy, the objectives become process objective rather than functional objectives. For example, traditionally, one of purchasing’s measurement is winslow boy material cost or material variance. Buying product at a lower cost is one way to improve that measure.
Purchasing a carton at a lower cost from a new vendor might lower the cost of the television com carton. However, the new carton may not run as efficiently through the production process as the one from the original supplier. Purchasing’s measure of material variance is on Vulnerable favourable, but the manufacturing facility is recognizing added costs in downtime, maintenance, etc. Measurements must be designed to look across the supply chain and become process objectives. Included in that process is the internal structure of the supply chain which often is causing as much confusion /cost as external portions of the chain.
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Remember that the person reading your CV may not be familiar with the education system in your country. Create two columns. Use the left-hand column for the dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, list the winslow boy name of the school or university on one line, followed by further details (the course name or the number of for women, exam subjects passed) on the next line. List formal educational qualifications only in winslow boy this table (eg university and secondary school, but not a language school or part-time courses), stating the most recent (and highest level) qualifications first. If you have been to a post-graduate school or college, put the television for women com name of this after a label such as Post-graduate studies: so that the level is clear. If you have been to a university, use the word University in of Animal Testing the name, or put a label such as University: before the lifetime com name so that the eldorado candide level is lifetime television for women, clear. If the university is one of the top universities in your country, state this fact (the interviewer may not know it). State the name of the town and Testing Essay country after the for women university's name. In the winslow boy description, put the name of the main subject studied (try to lifetime television com, avoid using the words major or minor, which are used in American English).
If you studied English, the subject should perhaps be described as English language and literature, not just English literature. Avoid mentioning grades unless they are particularly good; if you do mention grades, make sure that they are clear (e.g. 80%, or top grade) - the British university grade system is probably different from the significance of the battle of saratoga that in for women com your country. You should list any schools you have attended between the ages of about 15 and 18, but not before this age. You should add the label Secondary school: before the name of the school, or include the words High School in the name. If you took exams in investigation a wide range of subjects, you may prefer to list only the number of subjects passed instead of the subject names, or if you have been to lifetime for women, university you may choose not to list any secondary school qualifications. If you are studying in the UK, you may want to include details of on Vulnerable Populations, this course. If so, write this in a line under the main table. For example, you could write Currently studying English at ABC school, London (since January 2001). If you have other skills or qualifications which you believe may be relevant, you can list these.
English exams which you have passed (eg Passed Cambridge First Certificate of television, English). Computer skills (eg Good knowledge of standard office software, including e-mail and the internet) Typing speed (only mention this if you are applying for data entry or secretarial jobs) An international driving licence (only mention this if you may need to drive for the significance battle of saratoga it, the job) Create two columns; use the left-hand column for for women, labels and the right-hand column for information. The exact list of winslow boy, personal details you want to television, give may depend on your circumstances and what the job requires, but the list below will give you a guide. Write Date of birth:, followed by the day you were born in the second column, eg 3 Feb 1980. Note that the date should be written in British date order (day, month, year), not in American date order (month, day, year). Write Nationality:, followed by your nationality eg Japanese. You may want to write Gender:, followed by of the battle of saratoga was that Male or Female, if this is not obvious to a British person from your name. Whether you are a man or a woman may be relevant for some jobs.
Write Work status:, followed by a description of the status implied by television com the stamp in eldorado candide your passport, for example, Student visa or EC citizen (no work permit required). Write Interests: followed by a short list of com, perhaps 3 or 4 main hobbies or interests. Samuel Adams Uk. As you have come to the UK to study, you can probably include interests such as travel, learning languages, or international cultures. Don't list anything which you wouldn't be happy to discuss at an interview. Include interests which may show the interviewer that you have good social or team-working skills, that show your dedication / enthusiasm / success, or that highlight additional skills that may be useful in lifetime the job (for example, computer or language skills). If you think it is necessary, write References:, followed by Available on request. You should only provide references if your employer asks for them. If you do need to give a reference, make sure that you have asked the Testing Essay person beforehand. Possible referees include a teacher or previous employer. Lifetime Television Com. It may complicate your application if you give the name of a referee who lives abroad; if you want to do this, make sure that the person will be able to provide comments in winslow boy English, and give an e-mail address so that delays can be minimised.
52 Orchard Street, London W2 3BT. Telephone: 020-7654 3210; Mobile: 07960 999999; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. · Advised the main shop's customers about organic and health foods. · Developed new business in smaller satellite stores, explaining the benefits of supplements and organic food to for women com, potential new customers. · Increased sales at both the main and the satellite shops. The extra profits were used to expand the business by samuel adams uk establishing a new shop. · Examined incoming mail and redirected this to the appropriate division.
· Translated foreign letters (written in for women com English) into Japanese. · Dealt with customs enquiries and procedures. Computer literate: good knowledge of Word and Excel, as well as e-mail and the internet. Fluent in Japanese; practical knowledge of English and Korean. If you are sending an language investigation, application directly to a potential employer, you should write a one-page letter to lifetime, accompany your CV (a covering letter). The covering letter may either be typed (better if you are applying to Horrors of Animal, a large company) or written neatly by hand (better if you believe that a typed letter may appear too formal).
There is an example covering letter shown below. State what type of visa you have, so that the for women potential employer knows that you will be able to work legally. You may want to mention the samuel adams uk level of your English ability. Explain in your letter how you can be contacted. If you are about to change your accommodation, you should ask to be contacted either on your mobile telephone or by e-mail.
If you give the telephone number of your host family, you should ask them for their permission first, and you should check if they have an answering machine. EXAMPLE COVERING LETTER. Re: Job as a part-time sales assistant (reference: JBW5014) I would like to apply for com, the job of a part-time sales assistant in the food section of Fortnum Mason's in Essay on Vulnerable Populations Piccadilly, as advertised in Loot Recruit on com, 2 August. Please find attached a copy of Horrors Testing Essay, my CV.
My previous jobs include two years as a sales assistant in lifetime television com an organic food shop in Japan. This has given me experience of dealing with customers, as well as cashier skills and a basic knowledge of food retailing. Of Saratoga. I have been living in London since last September, and television for women am currently studying English at a language school. I have good English communication skills (recently I passed the Cambridge First Certificate in English exam). Investigation. My fluency in Japanese may be useful when dealing with your Japanese customers.
I am an television for women, enthusiastic worker, and enjoy working in Horrors Essay a team. My student visa entitles me to work up to 20 hours per week (or longer during my school holidays), and I could start work immediately. I would welcome the opportunity to lifetime television for women com, discuss the job vacancy with you on on Vulnerable, the telephone or at an interview. I can be contacted most easily on my mobile telephone or by e-mail (see details at the top of television, this letter). SENDING YOUR APPLICATION. Check your CV and Essay on Vulnerable covering letter carefully before you send them. Use the lifetime television for women com spell-checker on samuel adams uk, the computer (set the language to British English rather than American English).
Ask a native English speaker to lifetime for women com, check what you have written, and Horrors of Animal ask this person for any comments they may have. If sending your application by post, send it by television for women first class rather than by second class (it shows that you care about getting the job). If you send an application by on Vulnerable e-mail, telephone to make sure that it has arrived, or send an application in the post as well. Alternatively, you may wish to lifetime television, hand in your application personally; if so, use this opportunity to find out more about the company and ask when you can expect to hear from them. If you have not heard from the it company two weeks after you sent your application (or before the closing date for applications, if there is one), telephone the company to check that your job application has been received and that there haven't been any problems contacting you. It is television for women com, often the winslow boy case that people are invited for an interview for only a small number of the lifetime television for women com jobs to which they apply. Try not to feel depressed if it takes a long time to get a job. If you are rejected by eldorado a company, ask them to lifetime for women com, give you some comments, so that you can improve the quality of your later applications.
Prepare for the significance of the was that, a job interview: Work/Interview. Improve your English writing skills: English/Writing.