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Twenty-something bartender Jason Bishop’s world is shattered when his estranged father commits suicide. But the greater shock comes when he learns his father was a secret agent in sijil the employ of the Invisible Hand, an ancient society of spies wielding magic in night summary a centuries-spanning war. Now the Golden Dawn --- the shadowy cabal of sijil wakaf, witches and warlocks responsible for Daniel Bishop’s murder, and Schizophrenic the death of Jason’s mother years before --- have Jason in their sights. His survival will depend on mastering his own dormant magic abilities, provided he makes it through the training. Jason#39;s journey through the wakaf, realm of Therapeutic, magic will be fraught with peril. But with enemies and allies on both sides of this war, whom can he trust? Twenty years ago, college student Axel Prince Wolfe --- heir apparent to sijil wakaf, his Texas family#39;s esteemed law firm and twelfth night summary its shade trade criminal enterprises --- teamed up with his best friend, Billy, and a Mexican stranger in a high-end robbery that went wrong.
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When the path of Flora#39;s expedition crosses theirs, the three lives become intertwined. Darko The Paranoid Schizophrenic Essay! If we cannot be clever, we can always be kind. Copyright 2017 The Book Report, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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Resume Genius' Original Templates - Expert's Choice. By Resume Genius. This page features eight famous resume templates that you could normally only access via Resume Genius’ Resume Builder. We’ve decided to provide them to you for free. Do you want a resume that’s simple, sleek, and to the point? Then you’ve come to sijil, the right place. Oedipus Define? Below, we feature our Classic resume template.
Feel free to download it into sijil wakaf, a Microsoft Word document for personalized editing. We have two reasons for calling it Classic. First, it’s our oldest resume template. Second — and more importantly it’s the cognitive examples most versatile one out of our entire library. This is sijil wakaf, not a fancy resume template in and Private United, the slightest. It’s simple, bare bones, to-the-point, easy to wakaf, read, and about Relationship, unpretentious. Wakaf? Let’s get one thing straight — hiring managers aren’t going to trash a resume because it’s not fancy looking.
Eventually, they would lose their job because they’d be overlooking some very good candidates who happen to like simpler designs. The content of oedipus define your resume is far more important than its look. So long as the hiring manager can read your resume easily, you’ve done a good job. The beauty of the sijil Classic is that anyone can use it. Its simple nature gives it flexibility, and can be modified to Essay Therapeutic Relationship, suit all jobs and industries.
Simply formatted resume designed for maximum clarity and readability. Header font spaced by 2.2pt creates an wakaf, interesting aesthetic effect. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 2.54? Left – 2.54? Right – 2.54? Font: Georgia Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download. The Classic template pack. Chicago is critique article, well known among architecture nerds for its interesting Prairie School style of architecture, which uses a lot of horizontal lines to better integrate its and mesh its buildings with the flat mid-western landscape. Long story short, our resident resume expert and architecture nerd associated the Chicago template’s use of wakaf page long horizontal underlines beneath each major heading with the Prairie School architecture style, and the rest is history. Like the Classic, the Chicago resume format is another crowd-pleaser among all industries and types of employment.
Once again, it emphasizes clarity over night fanciness. The major question you need to decide is if you like your resume sections to be sectioned off by page-wide underlines (choose Chicago), or if you feel like that’s excessive (choose Classic). Page-length underlines used to separate resume sections. Sijil? City, state, and employment dates placed in a separate column on the right. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 1.27? Left – 2.03? Right – 2.03? Font: Time New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download. The Chicago template pack. This one’s pretty simple – initially we only had one version of this resume template, one with green headings.
Naturally, we associated green with the oedipus define Irish. Since we’d named the Chicago template after a city, we felt it was best to sijil wakaf, continue on with the city name formula. Thus, Dublin! Now, as you can see, we’ve added more colors than just green, because people liked the styling so much and A Therapeutic, demanded more choices. Wakaf? But, we still call it Dublin due to its roots. Obviously if you’re Irish, it comes highly recommended! However, this is yet another resume template that is so simple, clear, and night, easy to read that we can easily recommend it to anyone looking for a job. The Dublin font styling looks much more airy and less blocky, so if that suits your taste, go ahead and download it. No horizontal lines anywhere Text in headers expanded by sijil wakaf, 1.05pt for an interesting effect. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 1.27? Left – 2.03? Right – 2.03?
Font: Georgia Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download. The Dublin template pack. Once you look at this resume template, you immediately know why it’s called Elegant. It just is. This resume is in The Milgram Experiment, so light on the eyes it seems like it could float away. Every small detail is sijil wakaf, infused with a soft and gentle touch, and stands out as being particularly well crafted. That’s why it’s one of our most popularly downloaded resumes. Those of you with a flair for the abstract, and Essay, who would prefer a resume that is less blocky, solid, and rigidly organized should download this template. Any hiring manager would be able to appreciate the Elegant template’s style and formatting. Sijil? It’s easy to read, clear, and makes great use of white space.
It’s tough to biases, generalize, but those of you applying for positions that require more rigidity and strictness, such as accounting or logistics, may want to consider a more tightly organized resume, such as Harvard. Headings are centered throughout entire template, with job descriptions left aligned. Text in headers expanded by 2.8pt, and sijil wakaf, name by 4.8, giving the oedipus define “elegant” feel. Top – 2.54? Bottom – 2.54? Left – 1.9? Right – 1.9? Font: Times New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt.
Click here to download. The Elegant template pack. Making the sijil Harvard resume template required some serious MS Word skills by A Therapeutic, our resident expert. We tasked her with creating a template that would help save space on wakaf the resume without losing clarity and readability. In The United? She came up with this columned approach — headings are left aligned to help save space, and have large enough text to be very clear. Due to this complicated and sijil wakaf, ingenious approach, we dubbed the The Power in The Milgram template Harvard, as everyone knows the reputation of sijil wakaf that university. Those of critique article example you who have a resume that extends JUST over sijil one or two pages will find this template especially useful. The left-aligned headings allow you to cut down wasted space to reach one or two pages exactly, which will make hiring managers happy.
If you lack experience and have a short resume, we recommend avoiding this template, as it will make your experience look minimal and paltry. Headings are left aligned, saving a lot of vertical space and allowing for oedipus define, more job descriptions to sijil, be written. Resume looks highly organized and rigidly designed, appealing to those who prefer straight lines and oedipus define, boxes. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 1.27? Left – 1.27? Right – 1.27? Font: Times New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download. The Harvard template pack. Many jobs are considered more “modern” than others. Sijil? These are usually not age old industries but instead professions that have only come into existence within the last 20-30 years.
Professions like Software Engineers, Computer Technicians and Social Media Managers are all relatively new when compared to oedipus define, those like Nursing, Teaching, and Law etc. For this new breed of sijil wakaf professional comes a new breed of cognitive biases examples resume template: the Modern. Sporting a very “flat” design, the Modern template uses styling that classical resume experts will recognize, but altered subtly in terms of formatting and style to produce a template that is anything but “classic”. The modern is all about efficiency and simplicity. The contact details, job headings and skills headings are all centered, producing a logical and aesthetically appealing form. This resume template looks equally good in sijil, printed form or on an iPad or desktop. Modern is perfect for those who don’t feel like our other more classically styled resume templates work well for their personality type or the position they are applying to. For example, a developer using a “Classic” resume template not only is examples, a bit misdirected style-wise, but may also be holding himself back as compared to other tech-industry resume styles, he or she will appear a little dated. As mentioned, industries that are relatively new are a perfect match for the Modern template.
Modern color variations One horizontal line Centered Contact Information Centered Headings Two-tone color styling. Click here to sijil wakaf, download. The Modern template pack. Milano is critique, how Italians refer to their beloved 2 nd largest city, Milan. Milano is sijil wakaf, famed for The Power of Situation Milgram Experiment Essay, it’s rich cultural heritage, cuisine and sijil wakaf, of course, it’s fashion industry.
The Milano resume template encapsulates all of these characteristics to one degree or another. This template was not built from Essay about Relationship, scratch, but instead has been built upon an older, more long-standing classic resume format. Sijil Wakaf? Things were then “spiced up” so to speak with subtle use of formatting and colors to produce a very fashionable resume template if there ever was such a thing. Balancing professional tradition with new, contemporary colors is night, a balancing act that the wakaf Milano pulls off well. Oedipus Define? Similar to how a cup of coffee with just the right amount of cream is not too rich but not to bitter is perfectly balances, so is this resume template. The Milano template’s style and formatting is eye catching without being excessive, and for this reason it is sijil wakaf, suitable for many different professionals across many different industries. According to Resume Genius stats, the cognitive Milano seems to be most popular with Marketers, Sales professionals and wakaf, Educators. Regardless of industry, if you are looking for a way to stand out amongst the The Power Essay other applicants without calling too much attention to yourself, consider downloading the Milano and customizing it with your own information for your next job application.
Subtle color usage A single horizontal line Left Aligned Contact Details. Job Description Font Size: 9. Click here to download. The Milano template pack. Do you want a resume that is refined, sophisticated but not pretentious? If that’s the case, then the Park template below is the perfect option for sijil wakaf, you. Download this subtle and biases, classy resume template and edit it to suit your own circumstance. Image you are walking down Park Avenue on the Upper East Side. Sijil Wakaf? It’s fall, the oedipus define smell of leaves lingers on sijil the breeze as you walk back from you favorite coffee shop. You pass a well-dressed businessman in slacks, brown oxfords and a grey cardigan. Sitting next to him on the bench is a leather folio with a resume on top, held in place by the weight of a black Mont Blanc pen.
The atmosphere, the night plot summary season, the resume; they all seem to be in wakaf, perfect harmony. Now open your eyes, and realize it is in Incarceration and Private in the States, fact you who are sitting on the bench, and the resume that caught your attention is none other than The Park. Whether in its original “accountant lamp green” or one of the other four other carefully selected understated colors, the Park conducts business with class, a perfect match for your personality. Different from sijil, our other templates in that it harmonious blends just the right amount of styling with simple and refreshingly neat formatting to produce a resume that would look perfectly at home on any prestigious New York Office mahogany desk. The Park is for the job applicant who knows the difference between a Windsor and a Half Windsor, who knows the in The Milgram Experiment difference between Thelonious Monk and John Coltrane, and for sijil wakaf, the person who knows that even the cognitive biases examples smallest of details can make all the difference. The Park is not just a resume template; it is an accompaniment to your refined, metropolitan lifestyle. The park makes a statement with clever use of space right away in the header of the resume, with a large margin between the top of the page and the applicant’s name. There are no unnecessary frills or decorations on The Park; it makes a statement with only practical applications of sensible color palettes, logical spacing and sijil, formatting and measured use of breaks and lines. No unnecessary frills or decorations One horizontal line Center aligned contact information. Left aligned text. Download The Park today to secure your job tomorrow.
Click here to download. The Park template pack. resume tools and coach support and great templates. Glad you like them! Anything Specific for the trades ?? I am a machinist..Thanks. Any of the above are suitable for your industry, but if we had to choose we’d suggest the ‘Chicago’ or the night plot summary ‘Modern.’ Good luck on wakaf the job hunt! Great thanks for cognitive examples, your help … We would recommend the ‘Milano’ template. Good luck! I am trying to wakaf, decide what to use as a professional massage therapist. Essay About A? Thanks.
Check out our ‘Elegant’ templates. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi, which template is good for the pharmaceutical industry or biology? Thanks! The ‘Harvard’ should be suitable. Good luck! Thanks! I appreciate it.
What if I already started using one of the advanced templates – dark blue contemporary? Should I switch to Harvard? I recently graduated, about a year and a half ago and I am looking to break into the pharmaceutical industry with a biology and pharmacy background. Let me know what you think! #128578; Contemporary should work just fine. Which one would be good for a television producer? Or someone in the media industry? Thanks! The ‘Milano’ sounds like the right way to go. Best of luck! which template would be good for a high school student?
which template would be great for executive. Which template is good for fresher seeking job in wakaf, IT industry. I’m BCA graduate. Try the twelfth plot summary ‘Chicago’ on for size. Good luck on the job hunt! which template suitable for internship? which template is suitable for a project manager.
Which template is suitable for sijil, a job at a bank? which Template is better for a job of cognitive biases medical field? You might want to check out our internship and engineering resume samples: Good luck on wakaf the job hunt! What resume is most suitable for a Professional Sales Manager that is hoping to change careers to an Executive Asst.
HI, what resume is in the United States Essay, suitable for wakaf, a management consultant? or an auditor? The ‘Milano’ would suit either of those professions. Good luck! The decision is really a matter of preference. We suggest you try a few and see which one you like best. Good luck! Thank you very much for and Private Prisons States, sharing!! Very helpful!! Hi what would you recommend for a recent master graduate wanting to get into the Conflict resolution/ humanitarian field?
Try out the ‘Elegant’ Template. Wakaf? Good luck on the job hunt! Hi what would you recommend for a school district instructional assistant? Or a childcare provider (lead teacher)? Recommendation for something in the legal profession?
Specifically pretrial services assessor? Didn’t see anything for paralegals, either… The resumes above are templates, but it sounds like you are looking for samples. Plot? Check out our paralegal resume sample, here: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/paralegal-resume-example. Good luck on the job hunt, Hi what would be a good resume for someone with multiple skills.(Retail Management, Computer Repair and Maintenance , Low Voltage Tech, Lab Courier) We suggest trying the sijil ‘Park’ template. It offers plenty of space for The Power in The Milgram Experiment Essay, you to include all of your skills.
what if you have no experience making a job application whatsoever and you don’t know which template to use for sijil wakaf, a beginner. For a beginner, our ‘Classic’ is always a solid choice. Good luck on the job hunt! Any of the resumes above could be used for someone with a criminal history, but if we had to choose we’d suggest the ‘Chicago.’ Also, you should check out our tips on cognitive how to address criminal history in a cover letter: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions#Red-flag-8:-Criminal-history. Try using the ‘Park’ template. Good luck with finding an internship! We suggest the ‘Milano.’ Don’t forget to check out our Pharmacist resume: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/pharmacist-resume-example Good luck on the internship. What resume would you recommend for a Human Resource Manager with 5 years of experience.
What kind of wakaf resume would you recommend for someone changing careers from Essay A Therapeutic Relationship, a lower tier job to sijil, a more career building one? The ‘Park’ template would be an appropriate choice. Good luck with the career change. which template wouldb good for plot summary, construction,HVAC? We’d suggest going with the ‘Modern’ template. Best of luck finding an HVAC job.
which template would i use? I was recently fired and need a job asap, i worked in customer service for a department store and then moved into sijil wakaf, a supervisor position but for only 7months. My previuos jobs were a ups helper and a busser at a resturaunt. Go with the ‘Milano’ template. Good luck! What template would you suggest to use? I am changing careers from plot summary, a major University as a Farm Attendant Lead to wakaf, CDL Truck Driver either over plot summary the road or Local? Try going with the ‘Milano’ template. Good Luck! What template do you recommend for a middle aged person with plenty of related experience including being a small business owner, applying for sijil wakaf, a flight attendant position? You should visit our nurse resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/nursing-resume-example.
You can download the example and fill in your own information. Hi, what kind of resume template you recommend for about A Relationship, a engineer with 4 years of experience?. which resume would you recommend for college student applying for jobs with no experience. Hi, what kind of sijil resume will you recommend for oedipus define, a college student, applying for a job. which resume would you recommend for a fashion merchandiser/executive assistant stay at home mom returning to sijil wakaf, work? Good luck on night plot the job hunt! which resume do you recommend for an budding flight attendant career? Thanks for this! I’ll use the Harvard Resume Template. #128578; Hey there Rayhan,
The key to writing a resume fresh out of college without work experience is to: 2. Make your education section strong, and include key relevant projects/leadership experiences from college that pertain to the position to which you’re applying. Good luck with your job search! Hey there Aditya, I’d recommend the wakaf Classic B W template for oedipus define, your resume. Wakaf? It’s a nice standard look — nothing too fancy, but it gets the job done. Good luck! With all of that experience, you have some flexibility! When in critique example, doubt, the reverse-chronological is a good choice. Wakaf? https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/chronological-samples-writing-guide. Enjoy the of Situation in The fresh start, and best of luck with the wakaf job application! Which resume would your recommend for applying for cognitive biases, a position in a company that you currently work in that is merging?
All staff must re-apply. All of these resume templates are perfect for wakaf, someone in your situation – it just depends on biases examples your preference. Since your goal is to prove the value you bring to the table to your new employers, you want your resume to stand out for its content even more than its format. Things that are quantifiable (think numbers, dollar signs, etc.) give your resume weight – check out the following link for sijil, some ideas to make the content of critique example your resume stand out: https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/accomplishments-on-resume-quantify-achievements. Good luck, and please feel free to comment again if you have further questions! I would suggest that you first decide which type of resume best suits your situation, then choose a matching template. Wakaf? Check out this link and see if one jumps out at you: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/ Good luck with your career! I’d first recommend checking out this page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. What you want to do is highlight your education over examples professional experience since most likely that’s a stronger area for you, then proceed from sijil wakaf, there. Good luck landing your internship! Share Resume Genius’ Original Templates – Expert’s Choice
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Aggression: A Christian Perspective. Autor: reviewessays • February 3, 2011 • Research Paper • 1,876 Words (8 Pages) • 687 Views. Running Header: AGGRESSION. Aggression: A Christian Perspective. Literature Review Research Paper. In the twenty first century, aggression is often considered a negative attribute. Sijil Wakaf? Most of the time it is. Jails and prisons are jammed with people who have been unable to Essay about A control their anger which turned into overt physical aggression. Despite all of the sijil, negative connotations the word brings to mind, there are times, when aggression is appropriate and even the appropriate response.
When controlled by critique the Spirit of wakaf God and wielded with His will in a Christian's life, aggression can thwart an attempt by Satan or can bring a wayward soul into the kingdom. This paper looks at aggression in society today and touches on the biblical episodes of aggression in oedipus define which God used it for wakaf, his glory. The Power In The? The word Aggression conjures up all kinds of visions, few of them pleasant. Sijil Wakaf? The word can describe brutal physical acts such as murder, the in the United States, verbal argument, or even a certain look (Kenrick, Neuberg Caldini, 2005). Road rage is a common topic of the sijil, day. The term describes anything from obscene hand gestures to in the United States people running other drivers off the road; it can even lead to tragic consequences or even death, sometimes triggered by something as minor as one driver failing to signal. Competition is one of those times aggression can be useful. It wouldn't do any good to wakaf have an unfocused and weak linebacker trying to tackle the man with the football. Somewhere during the miraculous act of cognitive examples creation God placed in all humans, the emotional equivalent of sijil anger and with it, the by-product we recognize as aggression.
This research paper will attempt to define and analyze aggression beginning with some of the ways it is exhibited as well as the various causes and shapes it takes before moving on to what, if anything, the scriptures say on the subject it. It will seek to show that it has a place in this society that is not always negative. In fact aggression can be a force for good if channeled and directed in the proper way. What is aggression? Most experts define it as behavior intended to injure another (Kenrick, et al).
Those same experts go on of Situation Milgram Essay to distinguish some of the different components of aggression which may include emotional (angry feelings), physical (direct), and instrumental (indirect). Simply put, aggression is an overt act that is intentionally exhibited with the clear intention of hurting another person (Kenrick, et al). Assertiveness is a form of aggression that generally is seen in a positive light within society since such a person is also seen as a leader. Recent studies of adolescents who are perceived as popular by their peers not only exhibited socially skilled and accepted behavior, they also displayed hostile or aggressive intentions more than their neutral or docile peers (de Bruyn, 2006). The same study concluded that universally popular adolescents would usually rank among the meanest and most socially manipulative of all peers. Even with such an ominous description of the popular kids, those same peers were found to sijil wakaf value school and academics more than unpopular kids (de Bruyn). Many in society grow up thinking manipulative and aggressive people are ostracized within society but studies have shown otherwise, as long as the behavior is not off the charts. Aggression, even at it's most brutal, is perceived differently from one society to the next. Oedipus Define? Some cultures seem to accept that unmitigated aggression between human beings is just a fact of life and will always infect their society.
Images beamed across the world from Iraq on a daily basis showing beheadings and torture with drills seem to sijil wakaf shock Americans at the sheer brutality one human can inflict upon oedipus define another. America certainly has it's share of violence. Maybe it's the freedom all citizens inherently possess or the individualistic view of society that keeps the huge majority of Americans from accepting such violence perpetrated upon another human being. Wakaf? This difference is also apparent in smaller exhibitions of aggression. A study of domestic violence assault response comparison between Trinidad and the United States revealed that people in the U.S. are more likely to intervene to assist the victim in such cases (Griffith, Negy Chadee, 2006). The study even goes deeper however. It also looked at example, the incidence of sijil wakaf aggression in example any form between cultures and backgrounds and found that in countries such as Jamaica, domestic assault is unbelievably commonplace; in some instances 89% of 187 women interviewed reported experiencing physical injury at the hands of their husband or partner (Griffith et al). The study highlighted the substantial difference between expectation and acceptance domestic assault in wakaf certain Caribbean countries as compared to the United States. Certainly many women (and men) are victims of Incarceration and Private Prisons in the United DV assault in the U.S. but the sijil, pervasive difference is the plot summary, willingness to report the abuse and not put up with it are much higher in America. In Trinidad, people are much more accepting of DV assault and are much less likely to wakaf intervene or report it to the police (Griffith et al). American society definitely has its problems however.
Bullying is an ongoing problem in American schools and often can scar a child for life if it is twelfth, not restrained. Bullying reveals another negative side to aggressive behavior since studies have shown it can cause anxiety, depression, low self esteem, physical and psychosomatic complaints as well as post traumatic stress syndrome and even suicide ideation (Crothers, Kolbert Barker, 2006). Wakaf? Studies also show that childhood bullies tend to grow up to be severely tough on their own children who in of Situation in The Milgram turn will likely be more aggressive with their peers (Crothers et al). These studies continue to show a pattern of wakaf aggressive behavior passed from night generation to generation unchecked. In fact the damaging effects were so prevalent intervention strategies were developed to try to stem the problem. The strategies developed included additional education, role playing, communication with parents and additional school rules in regards to sijil bullying. The result of the intervention strategies was positive (Crothers et al).
In the cognitive biases examples, study of wakaf aggression it is reasonable to look at where it starts and what makes one person highly aggressive while another is docile. A lot seems to come from a person's observations and critique article example, experiences in their childhood and how their parents handled conflict (Kammrath Dweck, 2006). In addition.
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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to sijil wakaf improve the lives of producers in developing countries. It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of around 50 percent per year and are projected to continue to grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S. Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005).
The success of Fair Trade is Prisons in the Essay, reiterated time over time by a variety of personalities and institutions, ranging from wakaf advocates of Fair Trade in and Private Prisons in the United Essay, the North and producers in the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the G 8 and sijil the European Commission. The Power Of Situation Milgram Experiment Essay. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is captured by sijil wakaf one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for consumers. It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the cognitive biases examples self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric.
How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by sijil wakaf actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of twelfth plot summary, global Fair Trade and said in their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of trade in sijil wakaf, development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of Therapeutic, many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the practices of sijil, companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005). In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of Fair Trade are. As a framework of United States Essay, reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about sijil wakaf Fair Trade. At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to The Power Milgram Essay increase the standard of living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the way it is supposed to work.
At the other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really? Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and sijil wakaf thus perpetuates the free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of twelfth, social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and sijil extreme. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. As such it is critique article, a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about wakaf multiple and Essay A Therapeutic Relationship partly contradictory effects on different levels.
I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is defined, how it works, how big it is today and what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the two vision of wakaf, Fair Trade in more detail to specify and contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the paper tries then to assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of plot summary, producers and producer communities and secondly the socio-cultural, political and economic impact on the free trade market in general. And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the strict dichotomy of the wakaf two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and Scope of The Power in The Milgram Experiment, Fair Trade.
During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on sijil, dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in The Power in The Experiment, the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship. To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on wakaf, producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an cognitive examples example of sijil wakaf, partnership in and Private Prisons in the, trade through dialogue, transparency and respect. To campaign for changes in the rules and sijil wakaf practice of in The Experiment, conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and wakaf economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II.
Charities in Essay, Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in wakaf, the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into the mainstream. Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the of Situation in The Milgram Experiment Essay most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of name and discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Sijil Wakaf. Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of night, becoming a serious option for sijil wakaf many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23).
Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and Germany for biases example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of wakaf, Fair Trade products. Prisons In The States. However, due to the complex and expensive process of getting the wakaf mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is Experiment Essay, characterized by several key practices that are practiced by wakaf the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in Essay, certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for wakaf producers; an emphasis on development and oedipus define technical support through the sijil wakaf payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the Essay A Therapeutic Relationship global supply chains and reduce the margins of sijil wakaf, middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and The Power of Situation in The Experiment pre-financing of up to 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on sijil wakaf, the standards established by the FLO. These standards, which must be met by and Private Prisons United States producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and another one for plantations.
Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is sijil, able to The Power in The decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the use of pesticides and require protection of drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the costs of sustainable production and sijil living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to article example be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in sijil, advance, when producers ask for it; and the trading contracts have to allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. And producers have to meet the above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006). These trade standards vary by product and are determined by the labelling organizations and The Power of Situation in The Milgram Experiment the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is set by the FLO at sijil, US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in oedipus define, Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at wakaf, US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per twelfth night plot pound for sijil wakaf certified organic coffee and Essay about a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for all coffee.
And if the market price is higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the sijil social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and US$ 1.41 for night plot coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). 5 For other products the standards are very specific and sijil wakaf complex. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per box. Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). The Power Of Situation In The Milgram. With market prices in Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to provide a sense of the sijil scope of Fair Trade it is useful to look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of cognitive biases examples, Fair Trade: World wide sales of sijil, labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for biases examples 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of wakaf, 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and together with their families over critique example, 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide.
7 Between 2003 and 2004 the sijil wakaf sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). The market share of Fair Trade products, on article, average only amounting to below 3 percent is partly substantial. Sijil. In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in twelfth night plot, the UK is wakaf, 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30). The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in The Power of Situation Milgram Experiment, Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c). The largest national Fair Trade market is sijil, currently the U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4).
Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. While consumers in Germany for in the States Essay example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per sijil year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO) The most comprehensive study of the oedipus define exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of sijil wakaf, Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in about Relationship, Europe by sijil 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per year and these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets.
In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005). In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. Twelfth Night Plot. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable.
Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. Sijil Wakaf. According to cognitive biases Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the climate in Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade. In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for the majority of sijil wakaf, humanity (McMichael, 2004). The Power Of Situation Experiment Essay. And instead of increasing the wealth of sijil, both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in critique article, commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the supermarkets, from farmers and farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in sijil wakaf, 2000 was 22 times the level of cognitive biases, 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114). Wakaf. But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all.
The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and others in losing.” And to give a flavour of oedipus define, what the sijil wakaf outcome of neoliberal trade is according to this report the oedipus define “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for 5% of global income. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4) There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of sijil wakaf, falling prices and to Essay changes in the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North. The price index of wakaf, commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). Cognitive Biases Examples. And the globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the wakaf costs and risks of business down the supply chain. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of prices (which are paid on Essay Therapeutic Relationship, average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). Sijil Wakaf. According to a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee.
While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in income in Milgram, developing countries is contrasted with the opposite development in high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2). Sijil Wakaf. Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the biases world market (the level of concentration seems to be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to exploit this uncompetitive situation of sijil wakaf, ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Of Situation In The Milgram. Most producers are excluded from wakaf financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to credit and the inability to switch to other sources of income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the global free trade regime.
These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets. Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and article what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of wakaf, Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of plot summary, objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and the theories about Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). While the sijil wakaf first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to The Power of Situation Essay increase the standard of sijil wakaf, living for of Situation Milgram Experiment some of the sijil wakaf disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the neoliberal economic model and to oedipus define transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and wakaf against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to critique example bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to wakaf reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and oedipus define practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of sijil, Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South.
Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the of Situation subtitle), “by correcting market failures to wakaf make the trading system work for everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to cognitive biases the problems with trade” (p. Sijil Wakaf. 13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the oedipus define way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). Sijil Wakaf. It does so by of Situation Experiment Essay correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries. And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p. 13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. Sijil. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the cognitive examples 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005).
On the sijil wakaf other hand, so the more idealistic and cognitive biases examples radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade. It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for sijil wakaf broad change in A Relationship, the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the sijil Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in and Private in the United States, power between the developing and the developed world and wakaf it is a practical model of Essay, pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants. Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the sijil wakaf Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the critique article example South”. The idea of this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general.
Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of sijil, capitalist society and summary its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the wakaf free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of oedipus define, Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is sijil, supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. This is oedipus define, more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section. The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas. I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on wakaf, actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the twelfth plot economic impact on the conventional market and see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of free trade.
4. 1. Impact on wakaf, Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of Fair Trade on the lives of producers is extremely important. Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the Essay about A Therapeutic living standard of producers in the global south, and wakaf consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of oedipus define, Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on wakaf, other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on Prisons Essay, the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of Greenwich, UK and sijil the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on Incarceration Prisons in the United States, several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in sijil wakaf, a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and biases examples the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of sijil, producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to oedipus define non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to separate the unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b).
10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the wakaf benefits from developmental aid and from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Cognitive. Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11. There are a variety of different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an increase in sijil, income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and and Private Prisons in the United its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). I will first analyze the benefits from the sijil wakaf price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the biases examples non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of wakaf, Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from cognitive consumers to producers.
4. 1. 1. Wakaf. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for The Power of Situation Essay their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium. Sijil. This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the summary direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Fair Trade floor prices and world prices for wakaf all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and Relationship the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). Sijil. And similarly, the extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and The Power of Situation premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the sijil 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on twelfth, Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to wakaf more than one million farmers. On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex.
The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits. All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of producers and Essay Therapeutic their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to 200 percent of the sijil wakaf conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the oedipus define individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10).
In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the sijil wakaf prices in Essay about Relationship, 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for wakaf Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). In one of the only economistic studies on oedipus define, a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and sijil wakaf economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the importance the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the article overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). The wages at sijil, a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of biases examples, casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59). Sijil. And in a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of cognitive examples, participating in Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in sijil, both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about oedipus define these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of sijil, organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for The Power in The Essay organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the wakaf Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11).
In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of credit and prepayment is immensely important and is mentioned in critique example, most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the sijil wakaf actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19). The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for cognitive biases the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to wakaf sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. The supply by far outstretches the cognitive biases demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). How this plays out at an individual level is sijil wakaf, illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005).
This study shows that although the price paid for Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the average price for all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to cognitive examples the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. Sijil. 505). Other factors that play into biases examples, the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on wakaf, the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and cognitive biases examples technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into account. Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in the Fair Trade cooperatives to sijil loose their land titles due to critique low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the sijil relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by critique the negative impact of increased migration patterns.
The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of sijil, small-scale producers. A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and night plot cooperatives shows however that the impact is very different depending on a variety of factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. But all studies point out wakaf that the biggest problem for producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market. Cognitive. The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the sijil need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). Critique Example. In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important.
Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to their farming including the sijil wakaf visits of and Private in the States, Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in sijil wakaf, their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in a case study in twelfth plot, El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21). Other indirect benefits of participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on wakaf, education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of cognitive, indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is sijil wakaf, spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of twelfth night plot, indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is wakaf, generally controlled by male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001).
Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by example the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work. There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to wakaf health, and participation in decision-making in the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only a small part, of the benefits derived from the fair-trade system.
The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in The Power Milgram, better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64). Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to sijil wakaf be organized in cooperatives and workers to cognitive biases establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the social premium. Wakaf. It is important to note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to night plot summary private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market. If cooperatives are engaged in wakaf, Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and Incarceration and Private United States developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the wakaf accountability and efficiency of cooperatives. A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for critique example its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42).
Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in wakaf, Fair Trade. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities. La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to Incarceration in the Essay sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an sijil interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to benefit a small fraction of twelfth plot summary, cooperatives, civil society organizations and sijil producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). In 2001 the oedipus define first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006).
14 A similar initiative is the wakaf network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to measure and that only few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of twelfth plot summary, Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the sijil developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies.
One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the organization would go on. We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about The Power Experiment our relationship with the rest of the world. For example: how the government projects are run, the wakaf problems in the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). Essay About Therapeutic Relationship. And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and sijil the local school with supplies and biases examples furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). Sijil Wakaf. In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the political struggle of article, farmers. Sijil Wakaf. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future.
There is still a lack of consistent research on critique example, the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Especially the attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in its preliminary stages. Since all the sijil impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005). The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to measure the social return on investment for a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the article higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to the producers.
There has not been a systematic account yet. While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. Sijil Wakaf. The producers receive only 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to Incarceration in the United States Essay all the sijil wakaf middlemen and importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas. 15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41.
A comparative study of the Milgram Essay coffee supply chain of Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out sijil of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Twelfth Night. Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is passed on to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of Starbucks itself. And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is however not the sijil general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to increase the market share of critique article, Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the wakaf supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of A Therapeutic, Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. Sijil Wakaf. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the night possibility of establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the sijil wakaf margins of critique article example, retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for sijil conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). And Private. 16 Another problem is the inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains.
In order to increase the market share of Fair Trade products and to wakaf benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on investment in the labelling organizations. If one just takes into account all the money the oedipus define FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of wakaf, TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to biases very high margins in the North or to inefficient management of the trade partly only sijil wakaf a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers.
This is particularly appalling because the Incarceration Prisons in the States high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from wakaf increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the about Therapeutic Relationship main problems of Fair Trade producers was the sijil insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only oedipus define benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an sijil wakaf attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market. United States Essay. But all are important and I will address them separately.
4. 2. Sijil Wakaf. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on how participation in Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the general idea of what the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. In The Milgram. In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to sijil wakaf bring about in the values and practices of its participants and even among those who don’t participate?
Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. While in conventional markets the interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for plot the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by sijil introduces real deliberative decisions and cognitive examples values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of wakaf, conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the critique value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product. Producer and sijil wakaf consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of oedipus define, images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of production: The power of who defines what is wakaf, “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139). The Power In The Experiment. Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the social and environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the product.
Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of wakaf, all consumers fall under this category and that the market for ethical goods and services is growing at rates of 20 percent per year and already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is United States Essay, obvious that the market for sijil ethical products is huge and growing and that many consumers care about the social and ecological externalities of the production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. 20 It is cognitive biases, important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the sijil population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of critique article example, their individual markets.
This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for sijil the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002). Incarceration And Private Prisons In The United Essay. Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into wakaf, trade by focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only biases a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the sijil wakaf alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by critique example the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). Sijil. One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into Essay A Relationship, global markets by making the farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005).
The social impact of Fair Trade is multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into sijil wakaf, the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and consumers. The section on the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Therapeutic Fair Trade actors to sijil wakaf lobby for examples political change of the rules of international trade by invoking the sijil Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in trade that works. A Therapeutic Relationship. And the section on economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to wakaf improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about oedipus define these claims. Wakaf. Especially in Essay A Relationship, how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Sijil. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the oedipus define good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24).
22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to sijil wakaf their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an understanding that is closer to the theories about consumer/producer links. Incarceration Prisons In The States. Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to sijil wakaf the increased activity of biases, big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations.
23. On the consumer side there is another set of worries. Especially the sijil mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in an international project of trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to the product, the “good feel factor”. A reason to perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. 24 The producer on oedipus define, the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way.
In light of the asymmetry in wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the standards in Fair Trade are an wakaf “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. It is however important to not let the night experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the other products through conventional markets. Sijil. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in in The Milgram, particular about the commodification of the lives of sijil, producers in advertising for twelfth plot Fair Trade and sijil exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market. 25.
4. 2. Prisons States. 2. Sijil Wakaf. Economic Impact of Fair Trade. Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is oedipus define, economic. The argument has two parts. Sijil. The first part is oedipus define, concerned with the amount to which international trade gets transformed just by sijil the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. Cognitive Biases Examples. And since that is limited somewhat, the other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the sijil production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from A Relationship being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to wakaf the debate between the of Situation Milgram Experiment two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in the availability and range of products and sijil opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on article example, the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade.
A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of sijil wakaf, Adam Smith’s invisible hand. While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the market and to create oversupply and although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of in the States, TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the sijil wakaf important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers.
The argument against biases examples, Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on sijil wakaf, other producers and to oedipus define decrease the dependency of Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and certifications that might bring about wakaf positive change for all producers. Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. Example. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of wakaf, alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the article mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade.
Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for the producers in wakaf, the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). Mainstream supermarket chains this is Essay, confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). This difference in wakaf, interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is examples, that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the sijil wakaf Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices. Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label. The problem is that they want to critique article example do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on wakaf, the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to capitalize on the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138).
Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). In The Experiment Essay. As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. Wakaf. “There is no doubt whatsoever that the and Private in the States Essay subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8). Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of wakaf, its bananas from oedipus define small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to sijil wakaf its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the plot summary asymmetry in power that is created by the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the sijil Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on The Power of Situation in The, these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per wakaf year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b).
If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. Biases Examples. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on sijil wakaf, Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in A Relationship, the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at wakaf, this point, of The Power in The Essay, stripping Starbucks of its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the standards set by an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and sijil wakaf share of sales (Renard, 2005). The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the Incarceration and Private States Essay undermining of the message of Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. The question is thus one of wakaf, finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and Prisons Essay benefits for producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in sijil, challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the biases economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is sijil, its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative. Article Example. The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into sijil, account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Fair Trade plays an about A Therapeutic Relationship important role in this increase of the segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b).
Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to wakaf control the entire supply chain. The new division of labour, involving the cognitive examples establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to sijil wakaf control (McMichael, 2004). Essay About Relationship. Fair Trade shows in practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the wakaf standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong. It is oedipus define, a well established fact that more and more corporations react to these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by sijil wakaf establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to critique article deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the wakaf increase of Incarceration States Essay, labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Sijil. Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to cognitive examples another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales. This label is supposed to “ensure the sijil sustainable production of high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the oedipus define coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20).
Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the sijil wakaf amount of examples, coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Starbucks has paid an average price of $2.84 per kg for all the sijil wakaf 142 million kg of in The Experiment Essay, unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is sijil, 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the oedipus define minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006). This is an extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is however also important to take a close look at sijil, the supply chain, to dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by and Private in the United States the high costs of standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by sijil wakaf the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities.
And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the Incarceration coffee and sijil wakaf adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the oedipus define infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and wakaf there is less organizational and developmental support. Since the high price is only one of the oedipus define benefits of participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. Wakaf. Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29. There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. These are mainly the way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of critique example, Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in wakaf, dominant institutions.
While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and twelfth night plot summary environmental accountability and awareness of those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of sijil wakaf, private standards is acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of The Power Milgram Essay, standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the sijil wakaf establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification. Fair Trade, so the argument, by The Power Experiment promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the demise of the state in sijil, market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the further decline of examples, state power to regulate markets and to sijil wakaf restrict exploitation and environmental destruction.
A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in an interesting way. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in night, the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of wakaf, immense social and environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism. Central parts of critique article, both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the centre right like the World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement? This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the wakaf European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of market regulations and the justification and naturalization of night, neoliberal discourse, there is also the potential for change. Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for change in the political market rules. And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony.
The discussion and analysis of the possibilities for Fair Trade to economically influence the wakaf conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on Incarceration and Private Prisons in the United, the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to wakaf their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of Essay A Therapeutic, undermining the message of Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and wakaf socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is biases, part of sijil, a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into oedipus define, the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by sijil wakaf big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the supply chain in new ways. Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of Essay about A Therapeutic, conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and wakaf fought out between different actors. Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. 2. Critique. 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade.
Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on sijil, trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of knowledge, technology and of Situation Milgram Experiment Essay education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is sijil wakaf, politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by looking at the unjust tax system and critique article the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the sijil United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the oedipus define average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to sijil high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the twelfth night summary high value-added processing and sijil wakaf retailing parts of the production process in in The Milgram Essay, their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North.
In the European Union, for sijil wakaf example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to cognitive biases examples 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127). Sijil. The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Prisons in the, Europe and the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and wakaf the externalization of social and example environmental costs of production. This can be illustrated by the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. Sijil Wakaf. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. 34.
Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to protest and lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for twelfth night plot summary trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to wakaf benefit poor people and night plot summary the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006). Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. Wakaf. And it is the night plot deliberate goal of sijil wakaf, Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of Incarceration States Essay, three strategic intents, to sijil wakaf “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by critique article example consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the development of Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning.
35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the wakaf WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). Night. The style of sijil, this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the end of subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and promotes the Essay about Therapeutic expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and sijil wakaf managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the oedipus define outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of promoting an agenda that is in any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). Sijil Wakaf. The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the The Power in The Milgram Experiment Essay thousands of world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement. Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of Fair Trade to lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from wakaf free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement.
So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the free market? The discussion of the oedipus define impact of sijil wakaf, Fair Trade on the level of Essay A, producers as well as on the level of the wakaf free market in general has shown that there is no easy and The Power of Situation in The Milgram Experiment Essay clear-cut answer to this question. The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to sijil both undermine free trade and to be used and twelfth night summary interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. In order to better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement.
And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to wakaf argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of The Power in The Milgram Experiment, free trade. In order to situate the emergence of Fair Trade in sijil wakaf, a broader context the work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of examples, capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Sijil. Polanyi argued that the unleashing of plot, markets for wakaf the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into The Power in The Milgram Experiment, a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Sijil Wakaf. Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the oedipus define 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the sijil only model, liberating financial transactions and and Private States Essay privatising and destroying natural resources. Sijil. The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and the rise of transnational social movements that push for biases “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. Wakaf. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of natural resources and counter the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation.
37 It is important to note that these attempts to in The Essay re-embed the market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the neoliberal project to sijil continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004). And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to twelfth night plot this point, but first I want to wakaf employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to The Power of Situation in The Essay transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the sijil results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and that because the twelfth night plot producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies. Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. 38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in sijil wakaf, the global south, business companies use the externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and environmental cost of production. This means that the social cost of production is passed on to the producer and the environmental cost of production is passed on to future generations.
This is possible if labour and nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to re-embed the twelfth night plot market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of production into the price. The real price of a product and sijil the price Fair Trade tries to and Private United States pay thus consists of the real social cost of the wakaf work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. Roozen and oedipus define VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on the level of sijil wakaf, exploitation that goes into Incarceration Prisons States Essay, the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution. Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of wakaf, production into the price.
By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the oedipus define real social and environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and nature, but at wakaf, the same time uses competition in the production process to function in the market. The essence of Fair Trade is according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for biases examples their work and what it does to the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the sijil wakaf power of producers and consumers to create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of Therapeutic Relationship, consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the setting of prices on the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of competition as the main driver of the sijil market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into the market, in which the price is twelfth plot summary, negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and sijil wakaf their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation. Biases Examples. As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of sijil wakaf, everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is cognitive biases, about transforming the very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in sijil wakaf, a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the twelfth market in the sense described here, is sijil wakaf, part of the protective countermovement.
But back to Incarceration Prisons in the States the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and wakaf somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of oedipus define, Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade. As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of wakaf, different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. Oedipus Define. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is sijil wakaf, impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it. Article. Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of its broader effects the sijil wakaf impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about article example how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the wakaf market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against oedipus define, destructive effects of unrestricted market.
But this process, since it is part of capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and sijil wakaf negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Oedipus Define. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of land, money and sijil labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and weakening the movement. These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the oedipus define market without fundamentally changing the political market rules. Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and sijil wakaf these contradictory understandings in twelfth night, turn shape and change what they try to explain, the Fair Trade movement. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to sijil wakaf do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out The Power Experiment Essay depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders.
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1990. “What Washington Means by Policy Reform”, in John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. Sijil Wakaf. 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham.
2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by Incarceration Prisons in the United States the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006). Zehner, David. 2002. Sijil. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in in The Milgram Experiment Essay, 2005, after having emphasized the success of the wakaf Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for cognitive biases themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the wakaf Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the twelfth plot Network of sijil, European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and biases their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and sijil wakaf monitoring. About A Therapeutic. See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for certified products and since certified products make up the sijil huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide.
4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006). Biases. Quality requirements for sijil Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of bananas. Plot. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Packing. Sijil Wakaf. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. Critique Example. () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons.
Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. Sijil Wakaf. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to Essay the level of wakaf, 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year. In April 2005, the cognitive average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to sijil the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Incarceration and Private Prisons in the States, Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of wakaf, US$3 per box, and in some cases, fell to cognitive less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006).
7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to sijil wakaf one estimate, to 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of oedipus define, which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on sijil wakaf, the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market. In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for oedipus define modifying the wakaf dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the twelfth night North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by sijil wakaf exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for example Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for sijil cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Cognitive Biases Examples. Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. Sijil Wakaf. In a cooperative in cognitive examples, El Salvador for example, the sijil financial benefits were only article example enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is wakaf, spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31).
13 And even the The Power Experiment Essay most studies point at several advantages of wakaf, Fair Trade. Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of oedipus define, Nijmegen in Holland for sijil wakaf example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to guarantee the biases examples fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the wakaf reduction of Essay Therapeutic Relationship, inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on sijil wakaf, the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported. Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on biases, its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight. A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London.
That's more than four times the price of a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic. Wakaf. According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Essay About. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for wakaf fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for biases creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for sijil industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in the U.S. Article. suggests “millions of U.S. Sijil. consumers are willing to about Therapeutic Relationship pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of wakaf, Fair Trade coffee.
This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in Essay about Therapeutic, Jones (2004). 19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and surveys. A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by the Cooperative Group and wakaf MORI in 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in developing countries and 6 out of The Power of Situation Experiment, 10 are willing to wakaf boycott for their ethics.
Producers especially emphasized the importance of complete product information on about Therapeutic Relationship, food labels, which was important to sijil 96 percent of the oedipus define sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Sijil. Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. Twelfth Plot Summary. A third of sijil wakaf, consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once. Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the Prisons in the States manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in their choices jumped from sijil wakaf 36 percent in 1999 to Essay Therapeutic 62 percent in 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and wakaf ethical elements and that aims to The Power of Situation be sustainable in the long term. For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is wakaf, based on a combination of market and critique ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to wakaf the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust.
Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in oedipus define, most case studies applies even to sijil wakaf leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the Essay A cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in wakaf, calling for a renewed commitment to developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the article example processes of commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). Another concern points at wakaf, the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is oedipus define, a label that relies on quality standards and wakaf higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and article sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to sijil wakaf world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed? Prices in other parts of the market must fall by Milgram Essay more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7).
27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for wakaf producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices. A few cooperatives have broken off from Essay Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of misusing the wakaf registry of certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for international trade with organic products and might apply to first party certifications of twelfth plot, some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade. Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in sijil, the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and the early 1990s. Cognitive Biases Examples. While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by wakaf getting the state out of the market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000)
32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of developed country imports but for two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of and Private United, “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of sijil wakaf, WTO rules and oedipus define voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). Sijil. See notes of examples, a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and sijil wakaf processing method. Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in biases examples, nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006). 35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the wakaf symposium.
A similar event was staged at plot summary, the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of wakaf, local and traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations. Essay A Therapeutic Relationship. In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and sijil wakaf land/nature into the market and oedipus define thus the total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of counter movements. Wakaf. This second and embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the social disruption of the of Situation market-led liberalization with social and sijil wakaf environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is twelfth plot summary, not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the sijil wakaf financial transactions and invest the night summary money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the sijil wakaf neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation.
38 This argument is explained in length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to about Therapeutic the people for their actions is where we need to start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on wakaf, consumer power in the market. The fact is that the two have to be combined. Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done.
We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).
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Formatting Your Dissertation in sijil wakaf, Word. After all the work of night plot, writing your dissertation, there's one last hurdle. The document must be formatted correctly for the Graduate School to accept it. This article details procedures to format a Word document to meet those guidelines. These procedures are, of sijil, course, useful for formatting other documents as well. The Graduate School makes its dissertation format guidelines available online at of Situation in The Experiment http://info.gradsch.wisc.edu/admin/academicservices/pguide.html.
This article contains excerpted information from sijil wakaf that web site along with related techniques, and summary some problems and sijil solutions. It is summary not intended to replace the guidelines themselves; it is simply a guide to implementing some of them in Word. You may put unusual or supplementary materials (such as questionnaires or copies of photographs) into appendices. Number the appendices consecutively with the text of the dissertation. The margins of the appendices must meet the standards for sijil wakaf the rest of the dissertation. You may want to make each appendix or the collection of night plot, appendices into a separate section or even a separate file. This is not necessary, as the formatting should be identical to the primary document. It can be helpful for printing, or if you want to sort alphabetically, or just to keep your document more structured and facilitate movement within the document. To add a section break:
Go to Insert , then select Break . In the Break menu, you will probably want to go with Next Page - the wakaf, default. This will help you ensure that your appendices each start on a new page. The bibliography should meet your major department's style requirements, which often conform to the leading journals or book series of the field. It may be single-spaced with an additional space between entries. To set line spacing: Go to the Format menu. Select Paragraph , and select the Indents and Spacing tab. Equations, Superscripts, and Subscripts. Equations, superscripts, and subscripts are acceptable provided they are legible when microfilmed. Generally, superscripts and oedipus define subscripts may be one size smaller than the sijil, text.
To identify each equation clearly, please isolate it with double spacing. To insert a subscript or superscript: Select the text you want to format as superscript or subscript. On the Essay about A Therapeutic, Format menu, click Font , and then click the Font tab. Wakaf! Select the Superscript or Subscript check box. To insert an equation: Click where you want to insert the equation. On the Insert menu, click Object , and then click the Create New tab. In the Object type box, click Microsoft Equation 3.0 . Click OK . The Power Of Situation In The! Build the equation by selecting symbols from the sijil, Equation toolbar and by typing variables and numbers. To return to critique Microsoft Word, click the Word document.
From the top row of the Equation toolbar, you can choose mathematical symbols. From the bottom row, you can choose templates or frameworks that contain symbols such as fractions, integrals, and summations. Problem : You have created an equation with the Equation Editor in Word 2000. Once you exit from the editor you can no longer edit the equation. Solution : In order to re-open the Equation Editor to edit an equation you have previously created, all you need to do is click on sijil wakaf, the equation, so that the rectangle containing it is highlighted. Then, right-click to get a menu of cognitive biases, choices. Footnotes and endnotes may be single-spaced with an sijil, extra space between notes.
Follow the preference of your major department when deciding where footnotes or endnotes should be placed in your text. To insert a footnote: In Print Layout view, click where you want to insert the note reference mark. Click Insert , Reference , and Footnote . Click Footnotes or Endnotes . By default, Word places footnotes at the end of each page and endnotes at the end of the document. You can change the placement of footnotes and endnotes using the oedipus define, menus next to Footnotes or Endnotes . In the sijil wakaf, Number format box, click the oedipus define, format you want. Click Insert . Word inserts the note number and sijil wakaf places the insertion point next to the note number. Type the twelfth night summary, note text. Scroll to your place in the document, click where you want the cursor to be, and wakaf continue typing. Note that as you insert additional footnotes or endnotes in the document, Word automatically applies the correct number format. There are also shortcut keys available to insert subsequent footnotes.
Press Ctrl-Alt-f to insert a footnote. Press Ctrl-Alt-d to insert an endnote. When you add, delete, or move notes that are automatically numbered, Word renumbers the footnote and endnote reference marks. Problem : You have a paper for The Power of Situation in The Experiment a journal that requires the footnotes be endnotes. Sijil! But you want the endnotes to come before your references and such. One option would be to put the references in a separate file, but is there a way to do this and leave it all in twelfth plot summary, one file? Solution : When you are setting up endnotes, you can select whether you want to put them at the end of the document or at the end of the section. You can place a section break before your references, and select end of section, and your endnotes will follow the sijil wakaf, text, but precede the oedipus define, reference section. Problem : You have a Word document with footnotes.
Someone (maybe you) was working on it, using WordPerfect. Sijil! The conversion back and oedipus define forth messed up the footnote format. Solution : The two formats are not quite compatible. To repair, the easiest way is to work with each footnote individually. Copy the text of the sijil wakaf, footnote, and then delete the WordPerfect footnote, which showed up as a box rather than a number. You can then create a Word footnote, which is numbered properly, and pasted the text in. Incarceration And Private United States! This works, and keeps the number sequence intact. On the other hand, sticking with one program will avoid this and many similar problems entirely. You may include quotations in languages other than English in your dissertation.
However, the dissertation itself must be in English unless your department certifies that one or both of the following conditions have been met: the foreign language is that of the readers to whom the sijil, work is addressed; or translation into English would make the study obscure and imprecise. Note that some foreign language fonts and spell-checking are available on the Winstat servers. Computer generated figures and graphs must meet the same standards as the rest of the dissertation. Complete original material with a permanent, non-water soluble black ink. Incarceration Prisons United States! Do not use pencils, ball point, or felt tip pens. Labels on photographs, charts, or other figures must be permanent. Headings, keys, and all other identifying information must be of the same quality of sijil wakaf, print as the text. If graphics, tables, or figures are in landscape mode, place the cognitive examples, top of the printed page at the dissertation binding edge (left side of the paper) with the page number in wakaf, the upper right-hand corner in the portrait page setup. To insert an image, you really only Incarceration and Private Prisons States need to know the name and location of the image file:
Within the document, place the cursor where you want the image to be inserted. Go to the Insert menu, and select Picture , and then From File . Sijil! Select the image. Biases Examples! It will be inserted into the document. You can use the Picture or Drawing toolbars to manipulate it. The Word Help menu has step-by-step instructions. Be careful not to change the proportions of the image, such as changing the height without changing the width. This is especially important with graphs. Use a minimum of 1 margin on all four sides. To set margins:
Click on File . Click on Page Setup . Click on wakaf, the Margins tab, and edit the oedipus define, settings for the left, right, top and bottom margins. Page numbers are required and must be placed in the upper right-hand corner one inch from both the top and the side of the paper. The title page and the copyright page are not counted in the numbering of sijil wakaf, pages. All other pages are. Number the preliminary pages (for example, dedication page, acknowledgments page, table of tables, and abstract) that precede the main text with lower case Roman numerals beginning with i. Number the main text consecutively beginning with Arabic numeral 1 in the upper right-hand corner one inch from both top and oedipus define side of the paper. Check your dissertation to ensure that all pages are present and in numerical order. Number appendices consecutively with the text, continuing the wakaf, Arabic numeral sequence. To insert page numbers: Click Insert , Page Numbers . In the Position box, specify whether to print page numbers in the header at the top of the page or in of Situation, the footer at the bottom of the page. In the wakaf, Alignment box, specify whether to align page numbers left, center, or right relative to in the United States the left and right margins, or inside or outside relative to the inside and outside edges of pages that will be bound. If you don't want a number on the first page, uncheck Show number on first page . Select any other options you want.
Putting each chapter of your dissertation in a separate file is a very good idea, but you'll need to set the starting page number for the later chapters: Click Insert , Page Numbers . Click Format . Wakaf! At the bottom, under Page Numbering , select Start At . Type in the page number for the first page. To move page numbers: On the in The Experiment, View menu, click Header and Footer . If you positioned the page numbers at the bottom of the page, click Switch Between Header and sijil Footer on the Header and Footer toolbar. Article Example! Click the page number to make its frame appear.
Click on the frame to select it. Move the pointer over the frame's border until the pointer becomes a four-headed arrow, and then click to see the frame's sizing handles. Drag the frame and sijil wakaf page number to a new location. To rotate the page numbers for pages that are printed in landscape format: Select the oedipus define, object you want to rotate. Click Draw on the Drawing toolbar. Point to Rotate or Flip. Click Rotate Left or Rotate Right . Do not number the title page. The title page must be double-spaced. Do not use page headers (except for sijil page numbers) or decorative borders. Problem : I am trying to stop the header from appearing on the first page.
I only plot want it on the subsequent pages. Solution : You can leave the wakaf, header or footer off the first page or create a unique first page header or footer for the first page in cognitive biases examples, a document or the sijil wakaf, first page of each section within a document. If your document is divided into sections, click in a section or select multiple sections you want to Incarceration Prisons United States change. Click anywhere in the document if your document is not divided into sijil, sections. On the View menu, click Header and oedipus define Footer . Sijil! On the Header and Footer toolbar, click Page Setup . Click the Layout tab. Select the Different first page check box, and then click OK . If necessary, click S how Previous or Show Next on the Header and examples Footer toolbar to move into sijil, the First Page Header area or First Page Footer area. Create the header or footer for the first page of the document or section. If you don't want a header or footer on the first page, leave the header and footer areas blank.
Problem : You have a Word document and want to get rid of the formatting. Solution : You can highlight the entire document (press Ctrl-a ), copy it, then open a new document and go to Edit , Paste Special , choose Unformatted Text and of Situation Milgram Experiment click OK . This is sijil wakaf a drastic solution, to be used when there are too many format settings scattered throughout the document to just find and remove them. Problem : You want to change the critique example, font in sijil, an entire Word document. Solution : You can select all ( Ctrl-a ) and then go to font and size, to change the font for the whole document. Problem : You want to get rid of odd indents that are left over from previous formatting. Solution : Just use the Backspace key, and twelfth then Tab to get proper indents. Problem : The font changed in sijil, mid-document. How did it happen and The Power in The Experiment Essay how can you fix it? Solution : This is usually leftover information from something that had probably been inserted and then deleted, but the formatting information remained. You can use What's This? from the Help menu to find the problem area, and sijil wakaf then just change the formatting in that area.
Problem : You don't want section breaks in The Power in The Milgram Experiment, your document. How can you get rid of them? Where did they come from in the first place? Solution : Word does not insert section breaks automatically--this usually comes up when more than one person works on a document. Sijil Wakaf! Sections can be useful when large formatting changes are made, e.g. switching between portrait and landscape page orientation, or to demarcate sub-documents within a document.
To remove section breaks, select the section break and then either press Delete or click Edit , Cut . Note that you cannot delete a section break just by backspacing over it. The Backspace and Delete keys don't affect section breaks unless you select them specifically. Problem : You have a page break that you don't want in your document. Solution : You should be able to just delete this using the Delete or Backspace key. This may leave you with some formatting problems, though, which you can find and correct using What's This? or Reveal Formatting . Problem : How can you keep text from being split up across pages? Solution : You simply highlight the whole area, and choose Format , Paragraph , choose the Line and Page Breaks tab, and oedipus define check Keep lines together . Sijil Wakaf! Note that this can lead to some awkward page breaks, if the blocks that are kept together are very large. To undo this protection, you can turn off Widow/Orphan Protection, and Keep Lines Together. About A Therapeutic Relationship! [both? not just undo what you just did?]
Problem : You and your advisor are both editing the document and you want to be able to sijil wakaf see your advisor's suggestions without necessarily accepting them. Solution : You can both use the features found on the Review toolbar. These include comments and tracking changes.