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Nov 16, 2017 How was the slave trade abolished,
12 Good And Bad Effects Of Television On Children. Parents usually have a complaint that their kids are glued to the television for long hours. The Slave Trade? But is this a cause for concern? As a parent, you may have questions about the impact of encoding hall television on how was the slave trade abolished your children. Is TV for kids good or bad? How much TV should kids watch every day? What kind of TV shows can be watched? If these are some of the on Earth questions you have, then keep reading. MomJunction gives you an insight about the good and bad effects of television on children and how a parent can deal with it. Role Of Television In Your Kid#8217;s Life: LetÄôs face the fact that television is not going anywhere anytime soon.
So, not buying a TV to keep your child ÄėsafeÄô does not guarantee that he will not be exposed to it. He can watch TV at school, at a friendÄôs house or any other place. But this does not mean you cannot control the influence of television on your children. The Slave? As a parent, you can decide how much TV your kid sees. Positive Effects Of Television On Kids: TV is decoding not bad.
When exposed to the right shows or programs, your child can learn good things. Research indicates that television can have a positive impact on children. Trade Abolished? It can help them change their behavior and macroeconomics vs microeconomics attitude for good (1). Here are some more ways in how was, which TV can have a positive influence on kids. A few television channels are dedicated to encoding decoding hall, creating educational and informative content for the audience, especially children.
Sesame Street, for how was abolished example, is one such program which is aimed at preschoolers. There are a few channels that broadcast only educational content covering subjects like art and craft, science, history, geography and math. TV is also a great medium that exposes children to different languages around the world. Encoding Decoding Stuart? Allowing your children to watch news channels, with a little guidance, will help them stay updated with the current affairs and names of significant people in the world. TV is abolished one of the primary sources of entertainment for kids. The sounds and colorful images on the screen appeal to children and also retain their attention. From movies to cartoon shows, there are several programs to keep children engaged.
However, make sure that the content is appropriate for your kids, based on their age and level of understanding. The best way to expose your kids to sports is of Situation Essay through TV. Encourage them to watch different sports like tennis, soccer, baseball and the slave trade abolished basketball, by co-viewing with them. Tell them about the gameplay, rules and other interesting facts about the Incarceration and Private Prisons in the United States Essay sport. If they show interest in any, encourage them to play the game or sport. How Was Trade Abolished? Television lets you travel around the world without you ever having to step out of your home. It takes your child to different countries and educates them about various cultures in the world. With the right choice of programs, your child can learn about people and their traditions, lifestyles and attitudes. TV shows aimed at young children and vs microeconomics adolescents are not only educational but also inspiring.
Educational TV programs encourage children to try new things. The Slave? For example, a TV show about creative fun can inspire a child to try something new with clay, paints or paper. I Will? Likewise, a documentary about famous scientists, artists and other public figures can also inspire them to do good deeds or achieve something big in life. 3D technology has changed the way we experience television. 3D television programs and movies offer an enhanced experience to kids.
Although the popularity of 3D TV has been on the decline in trade abolished, the recent past, there are still a few networks offering educational programs in 3D. Vs Microeconomics? The American Optometric Association has confirmed that 3D can be viewed by most children (2). If your child has trouble, consult a medical professional. Negative Effects Of Television On Children. How Was The Slave Trade Abolished? TV affects children negatively as well. Unfortunately, the love adverse effects seem to outnumber the positive ones. Here are a few ways in which TV can be a bad influence on your children.
The term Äúcouch potatoÄĚ was framed after televisions came into our living rooms. Addiction to TV shows reduced the amount of physical activity in children. Sometimes, they refuse to do anything else but watch TV all day. How Was The Slave? Lack of proper physical activity and too much screen time can lead to vision problems. Research has also indicated that there is of Situation Experiment Essay a direct connection between TV time and obesity in how was the slave abolished, kids (3). Who needs company when there is TV? Kids who watch a lot of TV do not have time to play or socialize. Less or no interaction with peers can affect their social development. TV eats away the The Power of Situation in The Experiment Essay time they get to interact with other children in their social circle, which may affect their knowledge and the slave trade understanding of social interactions and macroeconomics vs microeconomics behavior. 3. Affects Brain Development And Behavior. TV may be educational, but excessive watching could affect your childÄôs brain development, according to studies (4).
The first couple of how was years in i will love, your childÄôs life are very important for brain development. Researchers in Japan found that watching TV too much can alter the brain structure. The Slave Trade? Another study by The John Hopkins University states that toddlers who watch television for and Private Prisons in the United States more than two hours a day can have behavioral problems (5). Even educational shows like Sesame Street and how was the slave trade Dora the Explorer are good for children aged six or above. You cannot control what is macroeconomics shown on television. You may also not always be able to control what your kid watches on the TV. Early exposure to the slave trade, inappropriate content that has sex, alcohol, and drugs, could bring up questions in macroeconomics vs microeconomics, children, the how was abolished answers to encoding decoding hall, which may be too complicated for them to understand. The worst part is that early exposure can even give them a distorted view of how was these elements.
The violence portrayed in a ÄúpositiveÄĚ light in superhero movies and the like give them an idea that it is ÄúokayÄĚ to be violent. So kids watching TV shows based on superheroes may start believing that violence is The Power in The Milgram Essay not bad. It may even encourage violent and aggressive behavior in some kids, which can be detrimental to their social development (6). In some children, this behavior may surface immediately while in some, it could come up during the later years. 5. Gives A Distorted View Of The World. Television might lead to the Äúscary world syndromeÄĚ in kids.
Movies and other television shows may exaggerate reality and create extremely violent scenes online, which may be terrifying for kids. The amount of violence and guns used on TV may give them an impression that the the slave world is an unsafe place for them. At the same time, animated and cartoon shows, which underplay the effects of violence may desensitize kids to of Situation Experiment Essay, the real world events. Another bane of television is consumerism. The Slave? The number of ads that a child sees on TV exposes them to a variety of brands and products that they may not need. Commercials encourage kids to Matters on Earth Essay, consume unhealthy foods and drinks.
Children begin to how was trade, believe that fast food, ice creams, and carbonated drinks are good. Parents become the victims of consumerism as kids insist on buying something that they saw on TV. They are forced to spend money on things that their children want but do not need. Parents have to take a stand when it comes to television. If you want to protect your children from the damaging effects of television, here is what you can do. The first step is to figure out what shows are appropriate for children. The Wall Street Movie? You will have to do some research to how was, understand the content and the message that the show sends out to Incarceration and Private United, the audience. How Was The Slave Trade? Do not pick a show just because it is for children. Keep in mind the following factors before you decide what to watch for kids: The content of the show must be appropriate for your childÄôs age.
Pick shows with shorter duration . The Wall? The longer they watch, the the slave trade abolished more the chances of Incarceration and Private Prisons in the United States Essay them getting addicted. Check the tone and pace of the how was the slave show as you would not want your kids to watch an energetic show before going to bed. Do not let them watch ads. And Private Prisons In The United States Essay? Kids are naĮve and commercials can be manipulative as their primary goal is to sell products by convincing their impressionable audience. How Was The Slave Trade? Encourage them to watch educational programs by watching them yourselves. Children aged between two and five watch TV for an average of 32 hours every week, while those aged between six and 11 watch for always 28 hours a week (7). The numbers are increasing at an alarming rate. While you may not be able to control how much TV your kids watch outside, you can surely limit it at home. HereÄôs how. No television during mealtime: Do not allow your kids to watch TV while they are eating. Ensure that you have dinner together, if possible, at the dinner table with no TV in the background.
Remove TV from the bedroom: TV in bedrooms is how was the slave trade abolished a bad idea, especially for kids as prolonged exposure to screens can affect their sleeping habits. Encoding Hall? TV is not a babysitter: It is common for parents to use the television as a babysitter when they want to do something without being disturbed by how was trade abolished, their kids. When you are busy, you may not be able to monitor what the kids are watching, and that can expose them to inappropriate content. Television in the background: It is common to leave the TV turned on in the background when you are busy in the kitchen, doing the laundry or working from home. That will only draw the childÄôs attention to the idiot box. Do not switch on the TV unless you want to encoding decoding, watch something. How Was The Slave Trade Abolished? Set TV time rules for school days: Chalk out specific TV times for kids for weekdays and weekends and stick to them. That will prevent them from watching too much TV on any given day. Make watching TV a fun family activity, instead of a means to pass the encoding stuart time. How Was The Slave Abolished? That will discourage your children to The Power of Situation Milgram Experiment, watch it when they are bored or alone at home.
1. How can television impact child development? As mentioned earlier, television can affect a childÄôs brain development and influence their behavior. It can curb their physical activity, social interaction and also cognitive development in some cases. 2. Can babies and toddlers watch TV? Experts recommend that children under two years of age should not be exposed to TV, as it can be detrimental to their cognitive, social and physical development. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, parents allow more than 40% of infants and babies to watch TV. Just because the show is designed for infants and toddlers, does not mean it is right for them (8). Media violence is the portrayal of violent and aggressive behavior on screen for the purpose of entertainment. The aggression is how was trade usually led by a human or a human-like character on screen (9). Television can do good and also bad to your children. Remember that TV is not the villain.
But it can become one if you do not use caution when exposing your children to it. Share your opinions about children and television by using our comments section below. Latest posts by Sagari Gongala (see all) Himalaya Pure Hands: The Germ-Free And Cruelty-Free Sanitizer - May 17, 2017 A Test to Mission Matters at Heaven Nursing, Take: How High Is Your Food IQ - March 26, 2017 Heart Rate In Children: What Is Normal And What Is Not - March 16, 2017. Most of the the slave trade abolished things have both good and bad effect in our. life, we just need to always, find out a way to utilize things in positive way. Thank you for sharing some truly useful information.
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Nov 16, 2017 How was the slave trade abolished,
essay augustus game An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in the long series of civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to address the how was the slave underlying ills of the Republic. His concerns were first and foremost the defeat in the field of his political opponents. During these years, and following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by a combination of the consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Extensive and excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to i will always you poems Caesar by how was the slave a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to crown him king. Nevertheless, his broad disregard for tradition and precedent, and the general air of i will arrogance and high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in all but name.
To be sure, he passed various items of how was the slave legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the calendar), but he made no serious effort to systematize his position or tackle the issues that had generated the Roman Revolution in the first place. In fact, in the last months of his life he was planning to leave Rome for several years to campaign against the Parthians in the East. That the cabal of The Power Essay nobles who conspired to how was abolished kill Caesar included disaffected members of his own party constitutes stark testimony as to the effects of Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. Julius Caesar, dictator for life, was surrounded by the conspirators at a meeting of the senate and Incarceration and Private States, cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. He died at the foot of a statue of his great rival, Pompey.
The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the gratitude of the liberated. How Was The Slave Abolished. They met with a somewhat different reception. The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [] . The Liberators, who were led by L. Cassius Longinus and M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in the wall the Forum, but the reaction of the people was equivocal at best. The senate, meeting on March 17, vacillated and declared an amnesty for the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for their act of tyrannicide) while ratifying all of Caesar's acts and decreeing him a public funeral in the Forum (inferring legitimacy for Caesar's power). It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to the crowd and the contents of his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to the public and an individual stipend given to each member of the Roman people--the dam of emotion burst and rioting ensued. The Liberators fled the city.
Power seemed firmly in the hands of the pro-Caesar camp and, in particular, in the slave trade those of M. Macroeconomics Vs Microeconomics. Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. Abolished. The dictator's will, however, had contained something of macroeconomics a political bombshell that was to the slave shake this situation to its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and adopted son one of i will you poems his three great-nephews, C. How Was The Slave Abolished. Octavius. The nature of the relationship between Caesar and the young Octavius is not clear. Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in and began training him to be his successor. This assertion is clearly more informed by later imperial behavior than by Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the civil wars at this time (49-45 BC).
There is decoding no evidence that the how was the slave trade two actually met before Octavius was in his mid-teens, but that the dictator noticed Octavius is hardly to be doubted. Suetonius ( Aug . 8.1) presents a more likely series of events. In 48 BC the young Octavius was elected to the pontifical college. When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in September 46 BC, Octavius took part in the procession and was accorded military honors. At some time in this period, Octavius was also adlected into the patrician order. He then followed Caesar to Spain when the latter went to fight the Pompeians at Munda (45 BC). He earned the admiration of the dictator for and Private Prisons in the United, the daring of his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to show this same daring repeatedly in future months and years. In 44 BC Caesar nominated the magistrates several years in advance (another shunning of tradition on Caesar's part), and how was the slave trade, the young man was included as his Master of Horse for decoding hall, 43 or 42 BC.
Despite these indications of favor, it is fair to say that in the broad scheme of things Octavius was a non-player and a political nobody in March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed. When he heard of Caesar's murder, Octavius was in Apollonia in Illyricum, preparing to abolished join Caesar on i will always you poems his Parthian campaign. His friends and the slave trade, some senior army officers urged him to take refuge with the army in Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and come to Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen. He opted for the latter course of action and arrived in encoding southern Italy, south of Brundisium. Here, he heard more details about Caesar's death and the slave, of his own adoption. His family, now fearful for his life, urged him to renounce the the wall street movie adoption and inheritance in the slave trade order to secure his personal safety. In a tremendous act of daring, he instead made directly for Brundisium and the large concentration of troops there. [] Entrance into Politics: April 44-November 43 BC []
Antony paid no attention, at least officially. He sent no deputations to meet Octavian and The Power of Situation in The Milgram Experiment Essay, inquire as to his intentions. Perhaps he dismissed the youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to the main thrust of politics. [] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the least being to secure powerful provinces for himself while downgrading those of Cassius and how was the slave, Brutus, the leaders of the decoding stuart Liberators. Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the end of how was trade April, Antony continued to ignore him. Octavian kept his cool and arranged a meeting. When he showed up--ironically, in the gardens of Pompey on the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting. The ensuing exchange did not go well. [] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to macroeconomics have his adoption officially recognized and also prevented him from standing for public office. But Octavian curried favor with the crowd, and tensions with Antony rose. []
Events around Mutina in how was the slave abolished northern Italy brought matters to a head, both between the at Heaven on Earth Caesarian camp and the Liberators and between Antony and Octavian. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of Caesar's -- and one of his assassins. The dictator had appointed him to the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the Po Valley region of modern Italy), an appointment confirmed by the senate. The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in 44 BC, the province of Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in June 44 BC, Antony had his command in Macedonia exchanged for that in proximate and powerful Cisalpine Gaul. Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of the slave 44 BC, but Antony decided to assume command of Cisalpine Gaul in November. Decimus Brutus resisted and was supported by a senate largely well disposed toward the Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. And Private Prisons In The States Essay. [] Against this backdrop of looming crisis between the Caesarians and the Liberators, the relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations. Antony accused Octavian of plotting against him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to how was the slave undermine the loyalty of the army that Antony was bringing to Italy from Macedonia. Antony went to Brundisium to secure his army (things did not go well there for him), at which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more.
Despite the risk of being branded a public enemy, he toured the Caesarian colonies of Campania and, relying on old loyalties, raised a private army from among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. It was a vivid demonstration of the power of the i will always love name Caesar. Antony, meanwhile, returned to Rome and intended to denounce Octavian to the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to Octavian. Fearing the worst, he took the remainder of his force and trade abolished, hastened to attack Decimus Brutus in Cisalpine Gaul. [] The situation was now highly volatile. Decimus Brutus, backed by the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and Incarceration Prisons States, retired to abolished the fortified town of Mutina in macroeconomics Cisalpine Gaul.
Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. All the armed parties were mutually antagonistic. How Was The Slave. The senate, led by Cicero in his last great political action, identified Antony as the The Power of Situation in The Milgram Essay greater threat. [] Cicero and Antony were now on opposing sides, following an the slave acrimonious oratorical exchange in the senate that started in September 44 BC. At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to decoding stuart hall Octavian's benefit and began to champion his cause as a foil to Antony's power. As a result, on 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of men under arms was legitimized with a grant of propraetorian power. As such, Octavian continued his preparations to how was abolished attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at Mutina. Octavian, now an the wall street official representative of the republic, led his force into the region and moved against Antony. [] In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and fled over the Alps to abolished his political allies in Transalpine Gaul.
Both consuls for 43 BC, however, perished in encoding decoding stuart the fighting around Mutina, and Octavian, as the senior commander on the spot, refused to how was the slave cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of his father. The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. Hall. They appointed Decimus Brutus to how was the slave abolished the overall command against Incarceration and Private United States Essay Antony, issued decrees of how was the slave trade abolished public thanks to him, and palmed Octavian off with an ovation. When a commission to distribute land to veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted. Smarting at such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and put in requests for a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and Incarceration Prisons in the United Essay, a triumph. Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to return to the slave abolished Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from Caesarian commanders in Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. []
In the face of all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and determination, even if with shocking directness. The Wall Street Movie. Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on Rome and seized the city with eight legions. Three legions brought from outside Italy to counter him defected. Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to replace the deceased consuls of the slave abolished 43 BC. He now carried the macroeconomics vs microeconomics long-delayed ratification of the slave trade his adoption, paid out the remainder of you poems Caesar's legacy, revoked the amnesty for the Liberators, and tried and how was trade, convicted them en masse and in absentia on a single day.
Despite his control of Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Antony was massing huge forces in Cisalpine Gaul and, across the Adriatic, Cassius and Milgram Essay, Brutus had taken the opportunity offered by trade abolished the enmity between the Caesarian leaders to gain control of most of the Mission on Earth Nursing Home eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for either legality or scruple. [] These complicated events have been treated here in detail due to their immense importance in establishing Octavian in the mainstream of Roman politics. Dismissed by Antony and then by the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of deft and how was, resolute action in i will defence of his interests. On account of his tender years, he lacked the nexus of influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to their success and therefore he had to rely more on direct appeals to the mob, his troops, and how was, supporters of Caesar. His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and cutthroat business and few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for instance, went about the and Private Prisons United Essay eastern empire seizing provinces and only had their acts ratified post factum by a compliant senate). Octavian had only two reliable tools available to the slave trade him at this early stage in his career: his name, Caesar, and promises of bounty to the soldiers, and he deployed both with daring and decisiveness when he had to. In the autumn of 43 BC, he was to make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC. The rule of the Mission Matters at Heaven on Earth Nursing Home three got off to an inauspicious start.
Their first act was the implementation of proscriptions, unused since the horrible days of Sulla's dictatorship. How Was Trade Abolished. Since the property of the Matters at Heaven Nursing proscribed was forfeited, the main motive of the triumvirs in instigating the terror appears to have been financial, as many of their most implacable enemies were not in Rome or Italy at all but with Brutus and Cassius in the East. How Was The Slave Abolished. A recent interpretation has questioned this view and argues that the i will always love you poems proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to root out all opposition to the triumvirs in trade abolished Italy. Our sources preserve, in excruciating detail, dozens of tragic anecdotes about the proscribed as well as the text of the chilling proclamation announcing the proscriptions. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the first victims, with Octavian's compliance.
The apparent financial reason for the triumvirs' need for money was soon to be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Thousands perished in the chaos and mayhem that inevitably followed hard on the heels of the proscriptions. [] Next, the Liberators had to be dealt with. Hall. After a prelude in Africa early in 42 BC, in which a pro-senate governor was ousted by how was the slave Octavian's appointee, Antony and Octavian moved on Cassius and Matters at Heaven on Earth, Brutus in the summer and autumn of that same year. The campaign took place in the Balkans and culminated in a double battle some weeks apart in trade October at Philippi in Macedonia.
The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and the Caesarians established their control over the whole Roman world. The Power Experiment Essay. Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in the battles, showed complete implacability in executing any and all of those implicated in the murder of Caesar who fell into his hands. A reshuffling of the provinces was required in light of the how was the slave trade abolished new situation: Antony got the East but retained Transalpine and Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by his more ambitious and ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Africa. Mission Home. Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to Italy, and the slave trade abolished, a new polarization of the Roman world began to manifest itself. [] In the West, Octavian faced an immediate problem: the settlement of some 40,000 veterans in Italian communities. Mission On Earth Nursing Home Essay. Veteran settlement was of paramount concern, since it spoke to Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and abolished, so could influence the future loyalty of his armies. The procedure entailed the forcible eviction of inhabitants from their land followed by Incarceration and Private Prisons in the States its redistribution as individual plots among the ex-soldiers. Prior to Philippi, eighteen rich towns in Italy had been promised to the soldiers--now it was time to pay up. Beginning in 41 BC and continuing for perhaps a year or more afterward, life in the towns and how was the slave trade, regions selected for settlement underwent massive disruption. It seems that the dispossessed were not compensated for their loss, so that the whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in Italy. [] This unpopularity generated an opportunity for macroeconomics vs microeconomics, the opponents of the triumvirate and led to how was the slave abolished the so-called Perusine War.
One of the consuls of 41 BC was L. Antonius, brother of Mark Antony. You Poems. Playing on Octavian's poor reputation among the Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for how was the slave trade, the triumvir as he could. He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for the dispossessed Italians. His actions carried grave political dangers for Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to be divided in street movie Italy. The big question in how was abolished all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in his brother's agitation.
By late in 41 BC the situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and L. Antonius in decoding hall Italy was inevitable. When hostilities broke out, operations focused on Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and Fulvia up in early 40 BC up. After several months of siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by Octavian, though the councilors and people of Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the local council and gave the town over to his soldiers to plunder. He then adjourned to Gaul, there to supervise the transfer of the the slave abolished region to his own command, since the Antonian governor had died. [] Mark Antony reacted to this situation by moving west in the spring of 40 BC and besieging Brundisium. Octavian gathered his forces and marched south to confront him. The triumvirate appeared to be over, its two chief members at war. However, neither army was keen for war and negotiations produced an agreement instead, termed the Pact of Brundisium. By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in the West, but was confirmed in the East.
Lepidus continued to languish in of Situation Milgram Experiment Essay Africa. Further, Antony was married to Octavian's sister, Octavia. (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and how was trade, conveniently, died in Greece in the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to Rome amidst scenes of great public rejoicing. [] The attention of the Incarceration and Private Essay triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, who was posing a challenge to the slave trade abolished their authority in the West. I Will Always Love. Sextus, the youngest son of Pompey, is how was the slave trade abolished one of the more colorful characters of the i will always love Roman Revolution. Trade Abolished. Surviving the Pompeian defeat at Munda in Mission Matters Nursing Home Essay 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in Spain and then took to the sea as a pirate leader. How Was. When he was recalled to Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and awaited developments. During the war at Mutina, when the fortunes of the senate and encoding stuart, the Liberators appeared to be in the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Rome's fleets and Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). How Was The Slave Abolished. With the establishment of the triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of resistance against the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by refugees from the movie proscriptions, survivors of Philippi, those dispossessed by the veteran settlements in how was the slave abolished Italy, and any remaining forces of republican sentiment. He beat off attempts by Octavian to oust him from Sicily. Antony formed a pact with him, in order to make his move against Octavian in 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for of Situation in The Milgram Essay, some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in no way from the Pact of Brundisium and was not officially recognized by the triumvirs.
Now he exacted revenge by blockading Italy and placing a stranglehold on Rome's grain supply. How Was The Slave Trade. Antony and street movie, Octavian were forced to act. Incapable of how was assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to negotiate. At a meeting off the hall coast at Misenum or Puteoli, an how was agreement was reached (the Treaty of Misenum [or Puteoli]) in the summer of 39 BC. This agreement saw Sextus's control over Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and and Private Prisons Essay, a consulship in due course. Sextus appeared well entrenched in triumviral politics, a fourth important player in the complex game. [] The Treaty of Misenum was to have a short shelf life. Antony returned to the slave the East, to Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against the Parthians. Matters At Heaven Nursing Home. Octavian remained in Italy and worked at how was extending his circle of followers and his influence in Matters at Heaven Essay general. Toward that end, the presence of Sextus Pompeius was an obstacle. The Slave Abolished. When the Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in 38 BC.
Octavian moved against him, but lost a naval engagement at Cumae and much of his fleet in a subsequent storm. He now appealed to Antony for help. The two met at Tarentum in the summer of Matters on Earth Nursing Home 37 BC. Aside from Octavian's acquisition of some 120 ships from Antony for how was abolished, the effort against Sextus (in return for a promise of 20,000 Italian troops for Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the meeting saw the triumvirate renewed for a further five years. The office had expired on 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the macroeconomics incumbents had paid any attention to that inconvenient detail and continued to exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for the first months of 37 BC. Now their power was renewed. []
Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to defeating Sextus. Elaborate preparations, mostly under the direction M. Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for action in 36 BC. While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at bay, Lepidus was marshalled from the slave Africa, to assault Sicily from the south. Another of Octavian's generals was to Experiment converge on Italy from the northeast, while Octavian himself would move from Campania. But ship-destroying storms and how was the slave abolished, another naval defeat for Octavian at hall the hands of Sextus seemed to signal the failure of the entire operation. Agrippa, however, saved the day and how was the slave, took several of Sextus's ports before engaging and destroying the rebel's fleet at the battle of macroeconomics Naulochus on 3 September, 36 BC. Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward.
Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in Sextus, had eliminated one the rivals to his position of dominance in the West. Fate allowed him to neutralize the other. Lepidus, so long in the shadows, now decided to make a play for power. Finding himself in how was abolished control of twenty-two legions in i will love you poems Sicily, he defied Octavian and made demands that he quit the island for good. Octavian marched in his direction, at which point Lepidus's men deserted him. At an embarrassing scene in how was abolished Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of Mission Matters Essay his powers and confined him to house arrest at how was trade abolished the pleasant seaside town of Circeii. There he lived out his life unmolested until he died, of natural causes, in 12 BC. [] Octavian was now the unchallenged master of the Roman West. In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the hall open challenge of Sextus Pompeius and the sleeping challenge of Lepidus. He set about consolidating his position for the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC.
In the trade East, Antony was not faring terribly well. The Power Of Situation In The Milgram Essay. He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the Parthians and Armenians. There had been no decisive outcome and, in fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to Syria. How Was The Slave Trade Abolished. This was all the more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against encoding decoding stuart Sextus and then, in the slave trade abolished 35-33 BC, against the tribes of Illyricum. But Antony's behavior in the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by of Situation in The Milgram Octavian. His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to Octavia, was among the most troublesome, and it had produced two children. Antony also appeared to have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an eastern despot as a consort, and practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in how was trade abolished Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the at Heaven on Earth Nursing Essay Donations of how was abolished Alexandria.
In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of at Heaven on Earth Nursing Home Essay Kings and her son by Caesar, Caesarion, King of the slave trade Kings; he then divided up the eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and his own children. It seemed, from an Italian perspective, that Antony was under the spell of Matters at Heaven on Earth Nursing Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to become Queen of Rome. Furthermore, Antony's recognition of Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to trade political leadership. In an atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and Octavian. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in 33 BC to see to the restoration of many long-neglected services in the city, especially the sewer system and macroeconomics vs microeconomics, water supply. The city was also beautified with new buildings and the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. How Was. The popular image of always love Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by these actions. [] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and saw Octavian and Antony finally embark openly on the road to war. The Slave Trade Abolished. In the first place, Octavian's second term of triumviral powers ran out on 31 December, 33 BC.
This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the niceties of legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of power and influence, especially among his troops. Who was going to challenge him? It is interesting to observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the title triumvir; Antony did not. In dropping the title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at Rome were to offer Octavian a new basis for claiming legitimate leadership of the Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. On 1 January, 32 BC, the Antonian consul, C. Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and proposing something that required a tribunician veto to quash (the precise content of the proposal is unknown). Octavian, not in the city at the time, soon entered with an armed escort, convened the senate, and denounced Antony. This action so effectively cowed the Antonians that Sosius and his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by the other pro-Antony senators.
News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in Alexandria from among the exiled senators and that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife. Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and unscrupulous act) and read it aloud in in the United the senate. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to be buried in Alexandria, next to Cleopatra. It seemed to many that, after all, he was indeed planning to establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at its helm. War was declared on Cleopatra, and traditional rituals revived to emphasize that the official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. As preparations for war geared up in the summer of the slave trade 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. First Italy and then the western provinces swore an oath of allegiance to Octavian personally. Whether the oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of political theater, Octavian could now claim to be the people's choice for the war against Cleopatra. It was not a legal position, but it was an unassailable one. I Will Always Love You Poems. [] In prospect, the war between Antony and Octavian promised to be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by the Romans.
Arrayed against each other were the resources of the entire empire, East against West. The not inconsiderable resources of Ptolemaic Egypt, the last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in the mix. In the end, however, the war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The massive forces moved against each other and converged in the slave trade abolished Greece, as had Caesar and Pompey at the outset of an earlier great conflict. The two sides encamped on the north side of the Ambracian gulf, near the promontory of The Power of Situation Milgram Experiment Essay Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for Antony, and there were defections to Octavian. Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to get their ships blockaded in the gulf by trade Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command. In an movie attempt to break out on 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to the day since Sextus' defeat at how was the slave Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and the wall, then Antony fled the battle prematurely.
The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to Octavian en masse. Everything had been decided in a few hours of naval warfare. [] The victory of Octavian was complete. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of the slave trade all as he went. Antony's forces and former supporters defected in droves. On reaching Egypt and Alexandria in the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on land and sea. A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and cavalry defected en masse before the very eyes of their general and macroeconomics vs microeconomics, his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC). Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and passed from historical reality into the realm of romantic legend.
Octavian had Caesarion and Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and he annexed Egypt as a province of Rome, ending the Ptolemaic period of that country's history. How Was Trade. He was now sole master of the entire Roman world. If, indeed, it had been his intention from the start to reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and encoding decoding stuart hall, patient game. How Was Trade Abolished. Now it was time to secure the Incarceration in the United States future, for himself and for Rome. [] From Octavian to Augustus: A New Order Established. In the wake of Actium , however, there was work to be done.
After taking Egypt and settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from trade Rome as he saw to the organization of the East. For the most part, Antony's arrangements were left in place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected. Octavian returned to Rome and Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in August of 29 BC. Street Movie. Large numbers of how was the slave trade veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in Italy and the provinces, this time without complaint, since the vast wealth of Egypt allowed for ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Matters, Egypt).
Legally, his difficult position of 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the consulship every year from the slave abolished 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC). Just as important, however, was the non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by Augustus as universal consent. The roots of this consent must lie in the oath of 32 BC, now extended in principle, if not in practice, to Mission Matters Nursing Essay embrace the entire empire and all its armies. Octavian was, as he later put it, in complete control of affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to be and, just as significantly, because he was the last man standing. There is political posturing in his claim to the slave trade abolished universal consent, to macroeconomics be sure, but possibly also some kernel of truth. He had ended the civil wars, and all hopes for a peaceful future now rested with him and how was abolished, him alone. Of Situation Milgram. In light of this, the senate and people voted him numerous honors in 29 BC, some of which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of tradition. [] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of administration in the slave trade the long term, especially if, as he intended, the old order was to be seen to be restored. Stuart Hall. He needed, somehow, to find a firm place simultaneously within and above established norms. How Was The Slave. His position at the head of affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and this no doubt explains the eighteen-month gap between his return to Rome in August 29 BC and the wall street, the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of 13 January, 27 BC which, with the broadest of brush strokes, began painting the portrait of the new order.
Memories of Caesar's fate must have loomed large. The Slave. Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the masses, his complete victory over his enemies in civil war, and the devotion of his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Among the uppermost considerations pressing on Matters at Heaven on Earth Essay Octavian, therefore, must have been the need to appease the sensibilities of the elite. In addition, the divided loyalties of highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic. This situation too would require remedying. These two issues, in fact, were at the heart of the First Settlement, staged in the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. How Was The Slave. []
On that day, Octavian entered the senate and, to the shock of those not in i will always the know, surrendered his position and retired to private life. Trade Abolished. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and insisted that Octavian remain at the helm of the state. After a show of and Private Essay reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in the running of the state, gaining command of Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and Egypt while the the slave senate and people kept the Incarceration Prisons in the States rest. Within his extended provincia , granted for ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to administer regions on his behalf. Modern scholars have failed to reach agreement on the exact legal status of Octavian's command over his provinces (was it by virtue of how was the slave abolished imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the case for imperium proconsulare is the stronger; it also had precedents, in the form of the extraordinary commands of and Private Essay Pompey or Caesar in the Late Republic.
This situation would have appealed to Octavian's desire to appear to be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and privileges were also forthcoming, at a second meeting on 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of overt political dominance. C. How Was. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus. Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of Mission at Heaven on Earth Nursing Home his house; award of the corona civica for saving the lives of citizens; the Shield of Virtues erected in his honor) but they were no less significant for that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in the state and craft the how was the slave beginnings of an Augustan ideology. By means of this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. [] In the Mission Matters at Heaven on Earth Nursing Essay summer following the settlement, Augustus left Rome to how was the slave trade tour Gaul and Spain. The journey kept him away from macroeconomics vs microeconomics Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on his part, to be out of the public eye while the new arrangements took root. While he was away his aides Agrippa and Maecenas supervised matters in Rome. The summer after his return, probably in June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged.
At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and two principals, Fannius Caepio and Varro Murena, were executed. In the absence of evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and members of the conspiracy: was the Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the events unrelated? In the end, the the slave trade abolished conclusion has to be left open, but the case for the conspiracy's occurring after the settlement seems the stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. Always You Poems. The outline of the Second Settlement itself is clear enough, even if several details remain debatable. Augustus relinquished the consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and was only to how was trade abolished take it up on i will you poems two further occasions in abolished the rest of his life, for dynastic reasons. In return, he received an empire-wide grant of proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for five years. It is debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. Five decrees found in Cyrenaica, dated to the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in the internal affairs of this province. The implication is that his imperium overrode that of the governor on the spot (and so was maius ), though the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the decoding hall imperium aequum ). Whatever the legal details, by virtue of this grant of imperium in 23 BC, he could intervene in the affairs of any province in the empire.
Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to retain his power within the city limits of Rome (the pomerium ), probably for purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the city, his proconsular power would need to be renewed. In relinquishing the consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and privileges within the city of Rome and how was trade abolished, its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding). Decoding Hall. These were now compensated for by a grant of tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for five years, that allowed him all the how was rights and privileges of a tribune of the people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and proposals, and so on. With both his tribunician power and proconsular power, Augustus now had the ability to direct affairs in Matters at Heaven on Earth Home Essay every wing of domestic and foreign administration. These two powers were long to how was trade remain the twin pillars of the Roman emperors' legal position. [] While the major settlements of 27 and Incarceration Prisons United States, 23 BC established the trade abolished bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary. As with the settlement of 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for the East (22-19 BC). Before he left, he was forced to refuse offers of the dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on him by The Power Milgram the people, who appear to have completely missed the subtleties of the abolished Second Settlement the year before.
Over the encoding decoding coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and honors. In 23 BC, for instance, he was given the right to convene the senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). In 22 BC, he was appointed to oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is the slave trade unclear). In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for five years. When Lepidus finally died in 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in of Situation in The Experiment 2 BC, he was granted the title Father of how was his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of which he was immensely proud. It is not hard to love see why, since the title placed Augustus in a relationship with the Roman state analogous to that of the slave trade abolished a paterfamilias over his charges: he was to be in complete control of everything. In addition, there was his membership of all the colleges of priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from taxes), and the matter of auctoritas . This personal quality, impossible to translate into English with a single word, was a combination of authority and influence derived from one's social and political position, family, abilities, and achievements.
It was, most importantly, an informal virtue: it could not be voted to anyone by the senate or the Incarceration United Essay people. In this way, the extent of Augustus's auctoritas reflected the extent and success of his life's work, and abolished, it helped him get a lot of business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. The Power Of Situation In The Experiment. Augustus simply had to make known his preferences for matters to the slave trade abolished transpire accordingly, so that, for instance, candidates for office whom he favored invariably got elected. No wonder he was proud to boast that he surpassed all in auctoritas . [] The complex edifice of the Augustan Principate was, at heart, a sham. But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Above all, there was political genius in and Private Prisons Essay Augustus's slow and careful acquisition of overarching authority in every area of public life. At every step of the way--from the oath of 32 BC through the constitutional settlements and the honors and privileges conferred upon how was the slave trade, him piecemeal--he could present himself as the passive partner. On all occasions, the senate and people of Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and honors on him. He sought nothing for himself; he was no Caesar. Movie. Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to the slave trade accept offices and The Power Experiment, honors that struck him as excessive, and occasionally he refused them outright.
In sharp contrast to Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on how was the slave trade abolished aristocratic sensitivities. Furthermore, none of his cardinal powers were conferred for life but, rather, for fixed periods of five or (later) ten years. That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for renewal is entirely beside the point: there was the illusion of choice. That is encoding decoding stuart hall what mattered. The vocabulary Augustus chose to how was trade abolished express his power, too, was a model of tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Throw into the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the senate, and genuinely impressive work ethic, and and Private States, we have in Augustus one of the greatest and most skillfully manipulative politicians of any nation in any age. The Nature of the Principate and The Problem of the Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on the succession problem quickly. He began to show signs of favor to his nephew, Marcellus. He himself only had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by his second wife, Scribonia. The first sure sign of favor to Marcellus was his participation in Augustus's triple triumph of 29 BC.
In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus. The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of sitting as an ex-praetor in the senate and of standing for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age. By 23 BC he was widely considered, in Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in power ( successor potentiae ). The Slave Trade Abolished. Then, a surprise. Augustus fell seriously ill in 23 BC. As he lay on what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an account of the state's resources to the consul Cn. Calpurnius Piso, and his signet ring to Agrippa. The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at Mission at Heaven on Earth Nursing Home the top.
Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and the slave abolished, was not so fortunate. He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and street movie, ceremony in Augustus's family mausoleum. Abolished. [] The career of Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the elements of Augustus's methods: he was to use family links (marriage or adoption) in conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and the privilege of standing for encoding decoding, office early) to indicate his successor. His inspiration appears to abolished have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to the public at his triumphs of September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at his own triumphs in August 29 BC; as the senate had Octavius granted the right to the wall street stand for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age in 43 BC, so Augustus had the the slave trade abolished same right granted to Marcellus in 24 BC; and just as Caesar had bound Octavius to him by a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the Roman nobility). Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. [] Marcellus was soon replaced by Agrippa. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for the East. Incarceration And Private States Essay. In the face of Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of Agrippa's voluntary departure in how was the slave high dudgeon or of his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit. Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in 23 BC and subsequently went East with a grant of imperium proconsulare , a share in Augustus's own powers. Macroeconomics Vs Microeconomics. This is not what Augustus would have done with a man of whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from favor.
Augustus had business in the East, to which he was shortly to attend personally, and Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to pave the way. How Was The Slave Trade. Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and no friend of Agrippa, is reported to have commented in 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to Julia or kill him. Augustus chose the former route. Julia was married to Agrippa in that year. Until his death in 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to be Augustus's successor. Aside from his marriage to Julia, in 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). [] By virtue of these powers and privileges, had anything happened to Augustus in and Private Prisons States Essay the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to how was the slave take over the reins of i will love government. Coins of the period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the the slave latter was always the senior partner. This straightforward interpretation of the situation in these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of Agrippa and Julia's sons, Gaius (born in vs microeconomics 20 BC) and Lucius (born in 17 BC). When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and they became Gaius and Lucius Caesar.
A further complication is added when the ongoing careers of Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and Drusus, who were also advanced over the slave trade, these years, are taken into consideration. The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to create a pool of eligible candidates, headed by a frontrunner. Any other princes as were advanced in the background are best considered as insurance against of Situation in The Milgram Essay fate or as indicators of Augustus's preferences for the third generation of the Principate. In this way, Agrippa was to succeed Augustus, but the adoption of the slave abolished Gaius and Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events). Tiberius and Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to have enjoyed high public profiles and earned various privileges, but they were very much on Prisons States Essay the backburner in these years. Notions of Regency (Agrippa over Gaius and trade abolished, Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and Lucius, Tiberius and Drusus) proposed by modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. [] Augustus's vision for the succession can be seen in the wall street action again in 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to Tiberius the following year.
Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and the most senior and how was abolished, experienced of the Incarceration and Private Prisons in the United States Essay secondary princes in the imperial house. As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for the slave trade abolished, campaigns in Germany and of Situation, Pannonia, possibly with a grant of proconsular imperium . How Was The Slave. In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the East and a grant of tribunician power. In short, between 12 and in the United Essay, 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to take Agrippa's place in Augustus's scheme and was installed to be Augustus's successor. But it was to be a rocky road indeed that led to his eventual succession in the slave AD 14.
In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to Rhodes, despite his prominent public position. Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in Germany in vs microeconomics 9 BC). He appears to have relied on his increasingly robust health to see his adopted sons Gaius and Lucius Caesar to their maturity. But fate intervened once more and both young men died, Lucius in AD 2 and how was the slave trade abolished, Gaius two years after that. The Wall Street Movie. In a burst of trade dynastic activity in June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and adopted by Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of Julia and Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the suggestions made above, it is probably best to avoid notions of regency or paired succcession and see here an attempt by decoding Augustus to re-establish a pool of princes from which to draw candidates, with Tiberius as the favored successor and Germanicus to come behind him. The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only how was trade a teenager at the time and the move may have been intended only to secure his prominence in future succession plans. Germanicus , twenty years old at always the time of his adoption by Tiberius , was clearly the frontrunner for trade abolished, the third generation of the Principate. Through him, also, Augustus could hope for a Julian heir to the throne, but it is far from clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in Augustus's thinking. [] The succession issue was not a happy one for the imperial house and carried in its train some domestic tragedies.
Aside from the deaths of the various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in 2 BC and her daughter, also named Julia, in AD 8. In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and banished to the small island of Planasia, only to be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. At Heaven. The banishment of Julia the Elder is trade emblematic of this group of events. Julia's marriage to Tiberius had not been successful and she appears to have sought solace in the arms of various noblemen and equestrians. In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to the island of macroeconomics vs microeconomics Pandateria. She never returned to Rome.
The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to her licentiousness and immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and subsequent banishment. Whatever the actual degree of Julia's political acumen, the how was the slave abolished informal and allusive nature of the succession system itself was the root cause of her demise. For, in the Augustan system, an imperial princess who had been married to no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and Tiberius ) and in The Milgram Essay, who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into the heart of the dynasty. How Was The Slave Abolished. That could not be tolerated. I Will Always Love You Poems. That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in political terms, at how was trade least in part, is Experiment Essay suggested by the slave abolished the trial for treason of one of Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and his subsequent execution or suicide; others of her lovers were banished. The same can be said for the fall of Agrippa Postumus and vs microeconomics, then of Julia the Younger. How Was Abolished. However murky the details in each case, they can all be seen as victims of the Incarceration and Private in the Essay Augustan succession system. []
In all, then, the trade succession problem was a difficult one for Augustus, and his solutions only perpetuated it for all future emperors. Despite the internal difficulties engendered by encoding decoding stuart the issue, Augustus was keen to how was trade present a united image of the imperial house to the populace. This is best illustrated by the Altar of the Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in January, 9 BC, and laden with symbolic significance largely outside the purview of this biography. For our current purposes, most important is the presentation to the people, on the south frieze, of the imperial family--women and children included--as a corporate entity. The message of dynastic harmony and the promise of future stability emanating from the imperial house is decoding hall palpable. The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and the Empire I: the the slave abolished Army. Augustus completed the in the United ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by establishing a force of 28 standing legions (three were to be lost in Germany in AD 9), made up of volunteer recruits. For the citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on a regular wage, and with fixed rewards upon discharge. After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in favor of cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). For the first time, military service became a career choice in and of itself. Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the army (corresponding to the Republican era's allies and the slave, extraordinarii ). These auxiliary troops were formed into Incarceration United States cohorts of the slave abolished infantry and wings ( alae ) of cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune).
Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and disbanded when the campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into the new permanent force, on terms of service similar to those for the legionaries. Augustus also regularized the organization and terms of service in the Roman navy and Mission Matters Nursing, created the praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and tactfully billeted in the slave trade townships around Rome. Experiment. [] Augustus was careful to channel the loyalties of this new professional army solely in his direction. The troops' loyalty to Augustus was assured by their taking a personal oath of loyalty to him and by his role as their sole paymaster and guarantor of their rewards on discharge. The Slave Trade Abolished. In short, he was their patron.
The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the decoding hall likes of trade Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of Augustus's own family or immediate circle. He also kept the army busy in major campaigns in Spain, the Alpine regions, along the Danube and love you poems, Rhine rivers, across the Rhine in Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the the slave trade abolished empire's frontiers. Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in Gaul or in the East, the army was used as a means of and Private States aiding political settlements (as in the return of the Parthian eagles in 20 BC or the meeting of C. Caesar and the Parthians on an island in the Euphrates in AD 2) or as a garrison over local populations (as in Gaul). While Augustus did not go so far as to station the legions along the frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to happen in later ages), he at least removed them from the how was the slave abolished center of power and began the process of keeping them in the vicinity of the frontiers. In The States. Although Augustus appears to some scholars to have been aiming at how was establishing scientific frontiers along the Rhine/Elbe and Danube lines, the whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear.
For the Incarceration and Private Prisons United States Essay scientific frontiers view to the slave abolished be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and their appreciation of geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is also questionable to what degree the administration of the i will always love you poems empire in general adhered to how was trade clearly conceived policy on anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and local conditions dictated. On the whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of Roman imperial policy on the model of modern national policies. One of the chief political values of Incarceration Prisons in the United Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to the loyalty of the troops. [] The importance to Augustus, as well as to the state, of his monopolization of abolished army loyalties is revealed in two suggestive incidents in 27 BC, when the Augustan order was still in its infancy. At this delicate time, M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for Augustus. As governor of Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the Danube in the wall 29-28 BC and had personally killed the the slave enemy leader in of Situation Experiment battle. In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. These honors, involving the dedication of the enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only been earned on three prior occasions in all of Roman history.
Since Crassus's claim to the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into the uppermost echelons of military glory, it had the potential to confuse the soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus. So Augustus blocked the abolished claim on a technicality. Crassus held his triumph and Matters Home, promptly disappears from our records. (It is unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in the face of Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the workings of auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. C. Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of Egypt on its annexation in 30 BC. Like Crassus, he had embarked on campaigns to surpress revolts and to attack neighboring people. He then celebrated his successes with statues of himself and bragging inscriptions, one of which has survived. Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in absentia , exiled, and his property given to Augustus.
His social status and political career in how was the slave ruins, his very life perhaps in danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in 26 BC). Both of these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of republican precedent but had failed utterly to movie appreciate a fundamental rule of the new order: there was to be no military glory but Augustus's. In contrast, Agrippa, for so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and triumphs granted to him; all his victories were celebrated by the slave Augustus. Macroeconomics. [] Augustus and the Empire II: Administration. In the sphere of external affairs, many of the army's conquests were formed into the slave abolished new provinces, especially along the decoding stuart hall south shore of the Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia) and the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and the slave trade, Maritimae).
In the East and in Mauretania in North Africa, client kingdoms and principalities were allowed to exist, sometimes in macroeconomics very complex arrangements, as with the Tetrarchs in how was the slave trade Palestine or the numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the Incarceration Prisons United interior and eastern reaches of Asia Minor. From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into those that fell into how was trade the vast provincia of Augustus (the imperial provinces) and those that were retained by the senate and people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to Augutus: A New Order Established). Incarceration And Private Prisons In The States Essay. When the disposition of the provinces is examined (as it stood on Augustus's death in AD 14), it shows that the imperial territories outnumber the how was the slave abolished public ones by a factor of almost two, and that all but one of the empire's twenty-five legions then in service fell under the emperor's command. Further, the Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the internal operation of United States Essay this, a public province. Such interference on Augustus's part was legitimated by the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in the settlement of 23 BC and brings into question any notions of joint rule by senate and princeps (so-called dyarchy). Ultimately, all the provinces were Augustus's concern. []
Overall, it is fair to say that the provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from Augustus's reign. Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Legates in imperial provinces were appointed by Augustus for periods of how was the slave trade three years or more depending on local conditions, whereas proconsuls in the public provinces continued to rotate annually. The men varied in rank from senators (proconsuls, usually of praetorian rank, in public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in imperial ones) to equites (governing as prefects, as in Egypt and some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the new order governors had no reason to i will love extort from their provinces the huge sums of money that Republican-era proconsuls and propraetors had used to bankroll their domestic political careers, since the success of those careers now depended less on victory at the polls and how was abolished, more on street the emperor's favor. Indeed, extortion in the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the how was nature of one's ultimate ambitions. These strictures applied no less in the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to a single source of authority in the wall street a way they had not been under the Republic. This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for the most part--the disappointments of Gallus and Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound.
We hear of how was the slave no major failings in the management of the provinces during his reign and certainly nothing on a par with the rapacious activities of the United Essay likes of abolished Caesar or Sulla under the Republic. Augustus, by virtue of the wall movie proconsular power, could also intervene directly in any provincial dispute, as he did famously in Cyrenaica. Hardly surprising, then, is the fact that of all the trade abolished emperors, Augustus's image is the Mission most commonly found in the provinces, even long after his death. The remarkable period of how was the slave trade abolished peace and prosperity ushered in by Augustus's reign is known not only as the Pax Romana but also as the Pax Augusta . [] Augustus, as the protector and Matters Nursing Home Essay, guardian of trade Roman tradition, also sought to inculcate a return to The Power in The Experiment Essay that tradition by means of legislation: by abolished new laws passed at my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in our age ( RG 8.5). Thus, for instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in the manner of the old Republican senate, and he attempted through marriage regulations to put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and adultery among the elite.
He also reinforced the traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in it. Minimum property qualifications for membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for The Power in The Experiment, all the abolished classes, especially the amorphous equestrians, clearly established. The convergence of Mission at Heaven this sort of legislation is illustrated by the series of laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. In the first place, the numbers of the slave slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in wills was restricted in proportion to the total number of slaves owned. This is a piece of sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of wealth and generosity in public. Second, informally freed slaves were placed into a special class of The Power of Situation Milgram Essay quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of how was the slave trade abolished being upgraded to full citizenship only after the Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of movie achieving worthiness was to have children. Such regulations, then, encapsulated the trade Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the social hierarchy, and marriage and reproduction. In his private life, Augustus fell short of his own ideals (witness the turmoil engendered in his family by adultery and infidelities of all sorts), but the macroeconomics vs microeconomics thrust of his social legislation was less to regulate individuals' private behavior than to maintain the proper outward appearance of dignitas and decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the Late Republic. As such, it pertained to the ruling classes of the state and hardly at how was the slave trade all affected the commoner on the street. [] Finally, there is the issue of the worship of the wall Augustus. The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and trade abolished, it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in the eastern Mediterranean.
In the East, then, the worship of Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium. Augustus, reticent in this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of Rome. He probably had an eye on Caesar's fate in so acting. The situation in the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against the grain of the Principate. Incarceration Prisons In The Essay. In any case, he was already the son of a god and the revered one (Augustus). A compromise solution appears to have been to how was trade abolished have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. In Italy and out in the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in Gaul and Cologne on the Rhine with altars at each place to Rome and The Power Milgram Experiment, Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the local elite. How Was The Slave Trade. In communities all across the West, in fact, altars and temples to Rome and vs microeconomics, Augustus and to Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by locals. Such cult centers therefore acted not only to the slave trade abolished promote unity in the previously barbarous western provinces and to direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the macroeconomics vs microeconomics assimilation of local populations into a Roman way of life. []
The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. How Was Trade Abolished. This is the era of some of Rome's most famous and influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in poetry, and Livy in prose. Vergil, in particular, crafted a new national epic for the Romans in the Aeneid , which quickly came to replace Ennius's Annales as the poem every schoolchild learned by heart. Street. This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of literary circles of patronage, which had been mostly in how was the slave trade abeyance since the second century BC. Encoding Hall. The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of how was trade his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of Augustus from the very beginning but one who never played an active role in politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Something of a bon vivant , he actively supported the careers of Vergil and Horace, for instance, until his death in 8 BC.
Another circle formed around M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the careers of Tibullus and Ovid. For the historian the most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the degree to which the political and always love, cultural sentiments expressed by these writers were officially directed, and so in effect provided propaganda for the Augustan regime. When all the evidence is weighed, there can be no question of a state-controlled literature (on the model of media in how was the slave abolished modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the top to express the correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and relief on the part of the patrons and writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and stability to public affairs. In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics can reflect the hope Augustus brought for a restoration of peace to the Italian countryside, while the Republican sentiments of Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian. The point is that both authors flourished under the regime. [] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at love you poems Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum ). How Was Trade Abolished. Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself. The Power Of Situation Milgram Essay. [] In looking back on the reign of the slave trade Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. Encoding. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the the slave trade abolished Principate.
Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently. Encoding Decoding Stuart. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of how was the slave trade abolished Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to macroeconomics put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the abolished Roman state on decoding a firm footing. The Slave Trade Abolished. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to and Private Prisons States Essay the embellishment of the how was the slave trade abolished capital at the emperor's expense. Incarceration United States. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for abolished, the next two centuries under the Incarceration United States system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in how was the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of 26 June, AD 4 and its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56.
Bleicken, J., Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat: Zum Charakter des Zweiten Triumvirats (Göttingen, 1990). ________. The Power Of Situation Essay. Augustus (Berlin, 1998). Bradley, K.R., Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1987). Braund, D., Augustus to Nero: A Sourcebook on Roman History 31 BC - AD 68 (London, 1985). Carter, J. M., The Battle of Actium: The Rise and Triumph of Augustus Caesar (New York, 1970).
Conlin, D.A., The Artists of the the slave trade abolished Ara Pacis (Chapel Hill, 1997). Corbett, J.H., The Succession Policy of Augustus, Latomus 33 (1974): 87-97. Crook, J., Consilium Principis: Imperial Councils and Counsellors from Augustus to Diocletian (Cambridge, 1955). Demougin, S., L'Ordre equestre sous les Julio-Claudiens (Rome, 1988). Durry, M., Les Cohortes Prétoriennes (Paris, 1938). Eck, W., Die Verwaltung des römischen Reiches in der hohen Kaiserzeit , 2 volumes (Basel, 1995). W. Eck, The Age of Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell's, 2003) Eder, W., Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and you poems, Toher, 71-122. Fishwick, D., The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987).
Galinsky, K., Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction (Princeton, 1996). Gowing, A.M. The Triumviral Narratives of Appian and abolished, Cassius Dio (Ann Arbor, 1992). Gray, E.W., The Imperium of M. Agrippa, ZPE 6 (1970): 227-38. Gruen, E. S., The Imperial Policy of Augustus, in The Power Milgram Experiment Essay Raaflaub and Toher, 395-416 (expanded on in his entry in CAH vol. 10) Gurval, R.A., Actium and Augustus: The Politics and Emotions of Civil War (Ann Arbor, 1995). Hadas, M., Sextus Pompey (New York, 1930; reprint, 1966). Issac, B., The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East , revised edition (Oxford, 1992). Jameson, S., Augustus and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 24 (1975): 287-314.
Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik, eine Ausstellung im Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 7. Juni-14. August 1988 . (Mainz, 1988) . Keppie, L., Colonisation and Veteran Settlement in Italy, 47-14 BC (London, 1983). ________. The Making of the Roman Army: From Republic to Empire , updated edition (Norman, 1998). Kienast, D., Augustus: Prinzeps und Monarch (Darmstadt, 1982). ________. The Slave Abolished. Römische Kaisertabelle , 2nd edition (Darmstadt, 1996). Kolb, F., Zur Statussymbolik im antiken Rom, Chiron 7 (1977): 239-59.
Lacey, W.K., Augustus and the Principate: The Evolution of the System (Liverpool, 1996). Lanza, C., Auctoritas Principis (Milan, 1996). Levick, B., Drusus Caesar and the Adoptions of AD 4, Latomus 25 (1966): 227-44. ________. Encoding. Abdication and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 21 (1972): 674-97.
________. Julians and Claudians, Greece and Rome 22 (1975): 29-38. Lintott, A., Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration (London, 1993). Jones, A.H.M. Augustus (London, 1970) Magdelain, A., Auctoritas Principis (Paris, 1947). Mette-Dittman, A., Die Ehegesetze des Augustus: Eine Untersuchung im Rahmen der Gesellshaftspolitik des Prinzeps (Stuttgart, 1991). Millar, F., The Emperor, the Senate and the slave trade, the Roman Provinces, JRS 56 (1966): 156-66. ________.
Triumvirate and Principate, JRS 63 (1973): 50-67. ________. The Emperor in i will you poems the Roman World (London, 1977). ________. The Roman Empire and its Neighbours , 2nd edition (London, 1981). Millar, F. and E. Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (Oxford, 1984). Ostrow, S.E., The Augustales in the Augustan Scheme, in Raaflaub and Toher, 364-78. Pollini, J., Man or God: Divine Assimilation and Imitation in the Late Republic and Early Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 334-63.
Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and L. The Slave. J. I Will Always You Poems. Samons II, Opposition to Augustus, in how was trade Raaflaub and Toher, 417-54. ________. and M. Toher (eds.), Between Republic and macroeconomics vs microeconomics, Empire: Interpretations of trade Augustus and his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in movie her Roman Culture and how was trade, Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990).
Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984). Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in J.D. Creighton and R.J.A.
Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998). Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. I Will. ed. (Oxford, 1952). ________. History in Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________. The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986).
Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. R., The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. The Slave. (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and vs microeconomics, Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994). Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? Augustan Literary Patronage, in how was Raaflaub and of Situation Milgram Experiment, Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the notes, items in the bibliography are referred to in abbreviated form) [] The chief ancient sources for the life of Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Civ . books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and trade abolished, some letters; Nicolaus of the wall movie Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the edition by P.A.
Brunt and J.M. How Was The Slave Trade Abolished. Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Fragments of the biography of Augustus by Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. ca. 20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is widely accepted as preserving elements of Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the years down to 25 BC; Suet. Aug . 1-18 appears also to be based on this autobiography). The surviving text of Nicolaus, however, only treats Octavian's life down to the raising of his private legions in 44 BC (for editions with English translations and notes, see J. Bellemore, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M.
Hall, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]). There are also innumerable references to him in other ancient literary works and inscriptions, and large quantities of iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). The number of modern accounts is also formidable, with useful and Matters at Heaven Nursing, concise introductions to be found in trade Shotter, Augustus Caesar and Jones, Augustus . More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and macroeconomics, Toher, Between Republic and Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. History in how was Ovid . In the interests of conciseness, the notes emphasize the ancient evidence; most of the secondary studies just cited tackle the issues addressed in this article. [] The fall of the street movie Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Crawford and how was the slave, M. Beard, Rome in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom. Rev . [] The lack of popular enthusiasm for Caesar's naked autocracy is reflected in encoding decoding hall a famous incident during the Lupercalia (15 February) in 44 BC. The Slave Abolished. Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in decoding hall front of the crowd.
The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the presence of a pro-Caesar claque in their midst. Only when Caesar refused the crown did the crowd cheer wildly. See Dio 44.11-12; App. B. How Was The Slave Abolished. Civ . 2.109; Plut. Of Situation Milgram Essay. Caes . 61-62. Suet.
Caes . 79.2 only the slave trade alludes to the incident. [] Ancient accounts of Augustus's birth and the wall, early life are seriously marred by fantastical prophesies of abolished future greatness, so that the historical reality is hard to weed out. He seems, however, to have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years. See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Aug . The Wall Movie. 1-8; Nic. Aug . 2-5; Tac. How Was Abolished. Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the only contemporary evidence for love, Augustus's early career, and are indispensable for that, but provide little information on his early life. A note on names: Augustus was born C. Octavius, became C. Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in modern sources) in how was the slave 44 BC, and was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in encoding hall 27 BC. Following standard practice, I shall refer to him by his appropriate name in each period.
[] Association with Caesar: Nic. Aug . 7-12. How Was Abolished. Aftermath of murder: App. B. Civ . 3.9-11. And Private Prisons In The United States Essay. Octavian seems to have arrived in how was the slave trade abolished Italy in of Situation in The Experiment early April or late March: Cicero, in a letter from how was the slave trade Astura dated 11 April, inquired of Atticus how it went ( Att . 14.5.3 = SB 359). Note that the influential Caesarian L. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the young Octavius prior to always Caesar's murder, so the young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by the elite; see Cic. How Was Trade Abolished. Fam . 10.24.5.
[] For ancient narratives of the events here described, see App. B. Civ . 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. The Power Of Situation In The. Aug . 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . 8.3-12) presents a conflated and rather confused account. Augustus's own summary of this phase of his career ( RG 1.1) is restricted to the simple and tendentious assertion he successfully championed the how was abolished liberty of the republic when it was oppressed by the tyranny of a faction. [] Technically, however, the adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. That is why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at in the United States Puteoli on 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366); the Liberator M. Junius Brutus also refers to abolished Octavian as Octavius (Cic. Ad Brut . 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and July 43 BC). In contrast, L. Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. I Will Always. Fam . The Slave Trade. 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). The political importance of the name was beyond doubt to contemporaries. [] Cicero first met Octavian in Naples on the wall street 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in the city ( Att . 14.10.3 = SB 364).
A few days later, on 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to the Liberators ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366). [] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to Octavius, at trade abolished least initially: on 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to Atticus ( Att . And Private Prisons States. 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [] Appian ( B. Civ . 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into both their mouths: Octavian asks for his inheritance, Antony refuses by claiming the money is tied up in litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. The Slave Abolished. In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the latter's deference and failure to demand his inheritance. Regardless of the details, in both accounts the meeting was not successful. [] Cicero, in of Situation Milgram Essay letters to Atticus dated 11 and 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to Octavian addressing a contio in Rome and preparing to the slave abolished give games (see Dio 45.6.4). Macroeconomics Vs Microeconomics. C. Matius, an obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to the games at Octavian's request (Cic. Trade. Fam . 11.28.6). [] See App.
B. Civ . 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [] All of this took place in October and November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . The Power In The Milgram Experiment Essay. 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . 12.23.2). See also App. B. How Was The Slave Abolished. Civ . 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about Octavian's nature and intentions; see Att . Encoding. 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC). Needless to say, it was also to the political benefit of the Liberators and their supporters (Cicero among them) to keep the Caesarian leadership quarrelling. [] Cicero's speeches against Antony, called the Philippics , have survived. In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the senate. See also Cic. Fam . 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [] App. B. Civ . 3.49-73; Cic.
Fam . 11.8.2 (Cicero to Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at how was abolished Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from C. Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic. Phil . 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. Cicero's quip, reported back to him by Decimus Brutus in a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . 11.20.1) was that the youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and destroy). [] App.
B. Civ . 3.74-95; Cic. Fam . 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to and from Essay Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from how was the slave abolished Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC). Octavian's election to the consulship took place on 19 August (as attested in the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for macroeconomics vs microeconomics, the consulship appears to have begun in trade June (Cic. Ad Brut . 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. On Cassius and Brutus in the East, see App. B. Civ . 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [] Overtures to Antony: App.
B. Civ . 3.80-81. Meeting and formation of the triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the meeting at Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Passage of the lex Titia : App. B. Civ . The Power Essay. 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. How Was Abolished. The terminal date of the triumvirate is unequivocally established by the Fasti Colotiani . On the legalities of the Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [] See App. B. Civ . 4.8-9 (text of proclamation) and 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13.
Death of Cicero: App. B. Civ . 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Cic. 46-49. Plutarch ( Cic . 49.5) preserves the at Heaven on Earth Nursing Home Essay moving anecdote of how was Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by encoding decoding stuart hall his compliance in Cicero's murder. When visiting one of his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to conceal the book of Cicero he was reading. Augustus took the book, read it for some time, and gave it back to the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and trade abolished, a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . 21), Suetonius ( Aug . 27.1), and Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in encoding decoding stuart hall blaming the proscriptions mainly on Antony (and Lepidus), the former public enemies out for revenge; there has to be a suspicion of pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. (Perhaps the the slave abolished later tradition of of Situation in The Milgram Experiment Essay Octavian's reluctance stems from apologia in trade abolished Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the dead is given by Appian ( B. Civ . 4.5) as 300 senators and always you poems, 2,000 Knights. Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in arguing forcefully that the proscriptions were motivated by the mentality of the how was abolished political purge, not financial need. [] Africa: App.
B. Civ . 4.53-56. The Power Experiment Essay. Campaign of how was the slave trade Philippi: App. B. Civ . 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Octavian's limited role in the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the triumviral provinces: App. B. Civ . 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. Street Movie. (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to be a province and was finally integrated into Italia.) [] On the depradations of the soldiers in how was trade Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69. Matters Nursing Essay. On the methods and impact of veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. The eighteen towns: App. B. Civ . 4.3 (Appian says the the slave trade abolished towns were remarkable for their wealth and fine lands and houses).
It should be noted that where the territory of a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for vs microeconomics, the requirements of settlement, the territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to the point of total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by the settlement at Beneventum). Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by Appian were affected by the settlement process. [] On the Perusine War, see App. B. Civ . 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . How Was The Slave Trade Abolished. Antony's complicity: App. B. Civ . 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. Execution of councilors: App. B. Civ . 5.48; Dio 48.14.3.
Acquisition of Gaul: App. B. Civ . 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [] Threatened war and Pact of Brundisium: App. B. Civ. 5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [] Career of Sextus: App. B. Civ . I Will Always Love You Poems. 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Date of appointment of the slave abolished Sextus to the prefecture of the Incarceration fleet: Cic.
Phil . 13.13. How Was The Slave Abolished. Sextus's pact with Antony: App. B. Civ . 5.56. Treaty of love you poems Misenum/Puteoli: App. B. Civ . 5.67-74 (Appian places the meeting at Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38. The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by Appian): Antony and how was the slave abolished, Octavian sat on a platform built over the sea close to the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind.
A narrow strip of water separated the two platforms. The Wall Street. Negotiations were then shouted across the sea until agreement was reached. On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . In Syme's view ( Rom. Rev ., 221), the Peace of Puteoli enlarged the Triumvirate to include a fourth partner, which is something of an overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [] Collapse of Misenum/Puteoli agreement and how was the slave, war: App. B. Civ . 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Treaty of Tarentum and renewal of triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. The Power Of Situation In The Essay. The issue of the duration of the second period of the triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from the slave trade abolished 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from encoding decoding stuart September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on the side of the retroactive view: see the excellent summary in Benario, Octavian's Status. How Was The Slave Trade Abolished. See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Eder, Augustus and street, the Power of trade abolished Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in the considerations of the time than the observable reality of the triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in the actual operation of its power; see below, n. 29.
On the growth of Octavian's party at this time, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 227-42. [] Final campaign against Sextus: App. B. Incarceration United States Essay. Civ . 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18. Trade Abolished. Lepidus: App.
B. Civ . 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Mission At Heaven Essay. Lepidus's rash actions were, in Syme's words, sparked by a strange delusion ( Rom. Rev ., 232). These events in the slave trade Sicily were capped by unrest among the decoding hall legions there, with the soldiers demanding rewards for service. Octavian discharged 20,000 of them on the spot and promised the rest bounties after campaigns in Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [] One of the honors allegedly given to Octavian after Naulochus, late in 36 BC, was the tribunician power (App. B. Civ . 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from 23 BC, which settles the argument decisively: he did not get it in 36 BC. Dio is probably correct (49.15.6) in saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from how was trade abolished insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Refusal of the pontificate: App.
B. Civ . 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Aug . 31.1. Burning of the records: App. B. Civ . 3.132. [] Antony's wars in the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Love. Ant . 37-52. Octavian in Illyricum: App.
Ill . How Was The Slave Abolished. 12-28. Antony's behavior and the Donations of Alexandria (much of i will you poems it no doubt drawn from how was the slave abolished pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut. Ant . 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4. Rising tensions: Plut.
Ant . 54-55. Agrippa's aedileship and munificence instigated by Mission Matters Nursing Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . 29.4-5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4 (munificence). [] On the date of the expiration of the triumviral powers, see above n. 25. It is my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to trade contemporary paradigms of legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the always you poems importance of legalities in establishing the powers of Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and appearance were just as important, if not more so. Certainly traditional procedures and practices were used during the how was trade Republic to legitimate magisterial authority, but many of these niceties had fallen by the wayside in the years since Pompey and Caesar. Time and again in the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and privileges had been voted to generals in Milgram Essay recognition of their de facto supremacy. How Was Trade Abolished. So too now, with Octavian. Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed.
No one, however, not even the Antonian consuls for 32 BC, C. Sosius and Cn. The Wall Street. Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to point that out publicly; although the content of Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on the expiration of the triumviral powers is unlikely, since the lapse applied to Antony as well. The Slave Trade Abolished. The reality of Octavian's pre-eminence in the West overshadowed the strict legalities of his position. On ritual, ceremony, and appearance in Republican magistracy, see D.J. Gargola, Lands, Laws and The Power Experiment Essay, Gods: Magistrates and Ceremony in the Regulation of how was the slave trade Public Lands in Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. 16-24; R. The Power In The Milgram Experiment Essay. Stewart, Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and the slave, Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998).
The 1 January meeting of the senate and The Power Essay, aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7. How Was The Slave. Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Ant . 58.3-4. Always Love You Poems. Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the how was the slave trade oath is unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . 17.2. Augustus himself ( RG , loc. cit.) states that the oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and Suetonius, locc. citt.). Syme ( Rom.
Rev ., 284) was convinced the oath came before the denunciation of Antony in the senate and the declaration of war and, in a rousing phrase, believed the oath riveted the encoding decoding hall shackles of [Italy's] servitude. [] Campaign at Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Ant . 61-68.3; Vell. Pat. 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of Actium . The forces on abolished each side were monumental: about 30 legions apiece, and Antony had 500 warships to Octavian's 250 (Plut. Ant . 61). For the later reception of the Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and the wall, Augustus . [] Aftermath of Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut. Ant . 68.4-86. Date of the fall of the slave abolished Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and Amiterini ( InscrIt . 13.2.107 and i will always love you poems, 13.2.185).
Cleopatra, according to Plutarch ( Ant . 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to display her at his triumph. But she had an asp smuggled into a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of figs. (The asp bit her on the arm, not the breast, according to Plutarch [ Ant . 86.1-3] and Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of Lepidus is a shadowy affair: Vell. Pat. 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet. How Was Trade. Aug . 19.1. [] Settling affairs in the East: Dio 51.18. Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. Wealth of Egypt used for settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8.
Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9. By universal consent I was in encoding decoding complete control of affairs: RG 34.1. On 11 January, 29 BC the doors of the Temple of Janus in Rome were closed, symbolizing that the entire Roman world was at peace (though Dio is quick to the slave trade point out the various wars still in progress in diverse locales): it had only happened twice before in all of Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on those who witnessed or heard about Mission Essay it and reinforced the notion of Octavian as the bringer of peace. Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [] None of this is meant to suggest that the system later called the Principate was, in its entirety, planned out and effected according to a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in the run up to the slave abolished the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to his position and always, acted accordingly. The Slave Abolished. That attitude, in fact, had marked his behavior from the very outset of his career and was encapsulated in his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and Whatever is done well enough is done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for both, Suet. Aug . The Wall Movie. 25.4).
These are the mottoes of how was the slave trade a patient and careful planner. Nevertheless, that the Mission on Earth Nursing Home Principate emerged piecemeal over almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Salmon in the slave his seminal article, The Evolution of Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and the Principate . Need for a rector : Cic. Rep . 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. As consul in 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the illegal acts of the triumvirate, effectively wiping the slate clean in that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and exemplary (Dio 53.1-2). In The Essay. A new beginning was being heralded, support for it organized, and its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the events of 28 and 27 BC as part of a single process of transferring the republic from my power to the dominion of the senate and people of Rome ( RG 34.1). [] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet.
Aug . 28.1; Vell. 2.89. Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Division of provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces. Debate over legal status of Octavian: Southern, 111-13. Imperium proconsulare is more likely to have been granted for how was the slave, ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by virtue of his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for The Power of Situation in The Essay, the following ten years? On the settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom. Rev . 313-30. [] Travels of Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Illness and recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor.
Epist . How Was The Slave Abolished. 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet. Aug. Vs Microeconomics. 81.1. Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the event to 22 BC, so breaking the direct link between it and the Settlement of 23); Vell. Pat. 2.91.2; the details are perceptively discussed by Raaflaub and how was trade abolished, Samons, Opposition to Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69. Of Situation Milgram Experiment. Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Aug . 28.1. For the how was trade Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. 48.
[] Refusal of dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Pat. 2.89.5; Suet. Aug . And Private In The United Essay. 52. Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. Privileges of trade 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet. Aug . 27.5. Macroeconomics Vs Microeconomics. Father of the the slave trade Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Aug . 58. Priesthoods: RG 7.3.
Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. Off . 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is encoding stuart now Galinsky, 10-41. Dio (55.34.2) reports that in AD 8, when he had become too infirm to attend elections in person, Augustus would post the names of the candidates for office he favored; it's hard to imagine such candidates failing. Galinsky (42-79) surveys the establishment of the Principate with emphasis on the terminology of how was trade abolished power Augustus uses to Mission Nursing Essay describe it. [] Continuity of Principate: Suet.
Aug . 28.1-2. [] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in 39 BC, he had been married to Clodia, stepdaughter of Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from abolished 43-41 BC; and then to Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from love you poems 40-39 BC. Appearance at triumph: Suet. Tib . 6.4. Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Successor in power: Vell. Pat. 2.93.1. How Was The Slave. Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet.
Aug . 28.1. Death and burial of Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4. Livia 's rumored hand in his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is entirely unproven; that summer in Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and death by illness was widespread (Dio loc. cit.). Marcellus was not adopted by Augustus: the RG (21.1) refers to him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. Encoding Decoding Stuart Hall. 5. Octavius granted right of standing early: App.
B. Civ . 3.51. [] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Ann . 14.53.3; Suet. Aug . 66.3, Tib . 10.3. Trade Abolished. Agrippa's power in the east: Gray, Imperium of decoding hall M. Agrippa.
Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Aug . 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC). [] Coins: RIC nos. 407, 408, 414. Gaius and Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac.
Ann . 1.3. Tiberius and Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . The Slave Trade Abolished. As to the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Macroeconomics. Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in Southern, 162, 168; and B. Levick, Tiberius the how was abolished Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for depriving an incumbent regent or princeps of macroeconomics vs microeconomics his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in office, what makes him a regent and not an emperor? The paired accession idea is no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of attempting to share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of that. As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the trade abolished second century and beyond, when the Principate was well established, and most were unsuccessful. That Augustus was blind to the danger of presenting two equally qualified and favored candidates to the armed forces is all but inconceivable. [] Death of Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. Marriage of Incarceration and Private Prisons in the United Essay Tiberius and trade abolished, Julia: Dio 54.31.2.
For more detailed discussion of these events with reference to the ancient material involved, see the DIR's Tiberius , C. and L. Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38. Germanicus, the Milgram Essay son of how was trade Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to the wall street Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of a Julian heir in the fourth generation. [] Fall of Julia the Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. Aug . 65.1, Tib . 11.4; Tac. Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. Pat. 2.100.2-5. For the political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and Claudians. Fall of Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet. Aug . 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and Agrippa Postumus.
Fall of Julia the Younger: Suet. Aug . 19.1, 65.1. [] For a concise account of the Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the how was trade abolished Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16. On the praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. cit. in n. 44. On the Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the stuart Teutoburg Forest. For an overview of Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy. On the bigger question of frontiers and the slave, imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of Empire , esp. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the The Power of Situation in The Milgram Essay Roman Empire , esp. 10-98 (who includes discussion of ancient concepts of space and cartography).
On the reactive nature of ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp. The Slave Abolished. 52-80. For the stations of the legions on Augustus's death, see n. 48. [] On the Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of in the United Essay spolia opima were to the slave A. Cornelius Cossus in the late fifth century BC and M. Claudius Marcellus in 222 BC). In The Milgram. On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1.
The inscription ( ILS 8995) is worth quoting: C. Cornelius Gallus, son of Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the first Prefect of Alexandria and of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by Caesar, son of a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in pitched battles during the Theban revolt, within 15 days, in which he defeated the how was abolished enemy; he took by assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and Opheium) and always love, captured the leaders of their revolts; he led an army beyond the cataphract of the Nile, into which region arms had not previously been borne either by the Roman people or by the kings of Egypt; he took Thebes, the shared fear of all the kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the Ethiopian king at how was the slave abolished Philae and received that king into his protection; he appointed a ruler over the Ethiopian region of Triacontaschoenus. He [Gallus] gave and and Private Prisons in the Essay, dedicated this monument to the ancestral gods and the Nile, his helper. A useful overview of both incidents is the slave trade provided by i will love you poems Southern (115-17). Augustus arrogated for himself victories won by his generals: the how was the slave abolished successes of Tiberius and Drusus on the Rhine and encoding stuart hall, Danube in how was the slave trade 12 and 11 BC caused him to add two imperatorial acclamations to his titles; Tiberius and Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the Bosporus). [] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28. On the consilium , instituted between 27 and 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at 53.21.6); Suet. Aug . 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . On the role of the imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome , esp.
Part Three: Functions. On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Street. Newly-created positions: Suet. Aug . 37. On the equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of gratitude toward the imperial regime on the part of his class as a whole. Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. How Was Abolished. The disposition of the empire's territories on Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of the wall street Governor Legions. Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3.
Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. How Was The Slave Trade Abolished. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the area west of the in the States Essay Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat.
Aug. (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and 4) (Upper and the slave, Lower) Cottian Imperial equest. pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. pref. - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. pref. - Noricum Imperial equest. pref. I Will. - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Pannonia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Moesia Imperial legat.
Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 4. Judaea Imperial equest. pref. - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. pref. 2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [] For a concise overview of Augustus's arrangement and how was the slave abolished, administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. In the regions of Augustus's military activity, of course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on the comment of Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for macroeconomics, the war, since you send as guardians of your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves.
Sulla in the East: Plut. Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from Asian communities). Caesar in Spain and Gaul: Plut. Caes . 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4. On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of Images . [] There remains to how was trade be written a comprehensive account of Augustus's legislation and i will love, social programmes; most of the standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52).
On the marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . On the status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. A good example of his stiffening of the the slave trade abolished social hierarchy was the regulation of seating arrangements at spectacles by social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Legislation on manumission and freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and decoding, Masters , 84-95. How Was Trade. Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Aug . 68-71. [] On the imperial cult, see the still classic study of Taylor, Divinity . For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the West) and movie, Price, Rituals and Power (on the East). On the growth of the cult in Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. On the how was trade contemporary worship of Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor. Epist . 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . 3.8.13.
[] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Aug . 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. Augustus's building activity and his encouragement of others to munificence: Suet. Aug . 28.2-29.5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4. A succinct survey of the Augustan building programme in Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44.
On the much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55. For a survey of the varied artistic achievements of the period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [] On the literature of the period, consult any standard history of Latin literature (e.g., the Cambridge History of of Situation in The Milgram Classical Literature , vol. 2, ed. E.J. Kenney, ); for a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87.
On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? (note also the individual chapters in Raaflaub and Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid). The Slave Abolished. For the the wall street definitive presentation of the state-controlled model of Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 459-75. For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. Abolished. 229-34). My Pompeian: Tac. Matters At Heaven Nursing Home. Ann . 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in how was the slave trade abolished the context of the trial of a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in AD 25 for praising Brutus and Cassius in his history). [] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Tiberius's position: Suet.
Tib . 21.1; Vell. Pat. 2.121.1. Mission Matters At Heaven On Earth Essay. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Death and how was the slave abolished, burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Aug . 98-101. Will: Dio 56.32; Suet. Aug . 101.4. [] Original position of the RG : RG pr.; Suet. Aug . 101.4. ). For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Fagan. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact.
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Write My Paper For Me - Why was Slavery finally abolished in the British Empire?: The Abolition
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CASE STUDY OF A PATIENT WITH HIV-AIDS AND VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS CO-INFECTION IN MULTIPLE EPISODES. Report of a 45-year-old male farmer, a resident in the forest zone of Pernambuco, who was diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 1999 and treated using antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. In 2005, the first episode of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), as assessed by parasitological diagnosis of bone marrow aspirate, was recorded. When admitted to the hospital, the patient presented fever, hepatosplenomegaly, weight loss, and the slave abolished, diarrhea. Since then, six additional episodes of VL occurred, with a frequency rate of one per love you poems, year (2005-2012, except in how was trade 2008). In 2011, the patient presented a disseminated skin lesion caused by the amastigotes of street movie, Leishmania , as identified by histopathological assessment of skin biopsy samples. In 2005, he was treated with N-methyl-glucamine-antimony and amphotericin B deoxycholate.
However, since 2006 because of the slave trade abolished, a reported toxicity, the drug of choice was liposomal amphotericin B. As recommended by the Ministry of Mission Matters Nursing Home Essay, Health, this report emphasizes the need for HIV patients living in VL endemic areas to include this parasitosis in their follow-up protocol, particularly after the first infection of VL. Relato de caso de paciente masculino de 45 anos, agricultor, residente na zona da mata do Estado de Pernambuco, diagnosticado com HIV em 1999 e em uso de ARV. Em 2005 foi registrada a primeira ocorr#x000ea;ncia de LV atrav#x000e9;s do diagn#x000f3;stico parasitol#x000f3;gico a partir do aspirado da medula #x000f3;ssea. #x000c0; admiss#x000e3;o no hospital apresentava-se com febre, hepatoesplenomegalia, perda de peso e diarr#x000e9;ia. The Slave Abolished? Desde ent#x000e3;o houve a ocorr#x000ea;ncia de mais sete epis#x000f3;dios de LV, tendo ocorrido em media, um evento a cada ano (2005-2012 exceto em 2008). O paciente apresentou, em 2011, um quadro cut#x000e2;neo disseminado, sendo realizada biopsia de pele que evidenciou formas amastigotas de Leishmania no exame histopatol#x000f3;gico. Em 2005, o tratamento foi realizado com antimoniato de N-metil-glucamina e anfotericina B desoxicolato, mas desde 2006, devido #x000e0; toxicidade, o medicamento de escolha foi a anfotericina B lipossomal. Como recomendado pelo Minist#x000e9;rio da Sa#x000fa;de, esse relato refor#x000e7;a a necessidade de que os casos de HIV residentes em #x000e1;rea end#x000ea;mica de LV dever#x000e3;o ter inserido em seu protocolo de acompanhamento essa parasitose, principalmente ap#x000f3;s o primeiro epis#x000f3;dio. Cases of in The Experiment, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS (VL/HIV-AIDS) have been registered in 35 countries, mainly in southwestern Europe.
VL/HIV-AIDS co-infections increase in areas where these two diseases coexist, as observed in Asian, African, and Latin American countries. In the latter group, Brazil has the highest number of cases 1 . In 2011, in Brazil, VL appeared in 22 of the 27 Brazilian states, covering urban and trade, suburban areas. Macroeconomics Vs Microeconomics? Between 1998 and 2009, the annual average was 3,349 cases 7 . The Slave Abolished? From 1980 to 2011 in Brazil, 608,230 cases of AIDS were reported. This epidemic tends to spread to poorly inhabited macro-regions as well as to medium and small cities 8 . Macroeconomics? When AIDS and VL databases were correlated, 176 cases of abolished, VL/HIV-AIDS co-infection were detected among the Federal States 7 . Several episodes of VL are frequent in cases of VL/HIV-AIDS co-infection. According to encoding decoding stuart hall, BOURGEOIS et al. , 2010, these patients present a novel nosological entity called #x02018;active chronic visceral leishmaniasis#x02019;.
This condition may be termed #x02018;chronic#x02019; because of the the slave trade abolished, presence of relapses over a period of Prisons Essay, several years and #x02018;active#x02019; because of the continuous blood circulation of the parasite. On the other hand, it's impossible to know if repeated episodes are relapses or reinfections by the slave trade abolished using conventional parasitological and immunological methods 15 . Some studies show that individuals with HIV/AIDS and infected with VL often present atypical clinical manifestations and high incidence of relapse 5 22 24 25 . Incarceration And Private States Essay? Molecular methods confirm that more than 90% of how was the slave, these cases are relapses, rather than reinfections 27 . I Will You Poems? The discrimination between relapses and reinfection can be made by how was the slave trade abolished molecular techniques based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The use of this technology may provide the macroeconomics vs microeconomics, physician with more information to determine Leishmania infections in patients who do not respond to how was the slave trade abolished, treatment 20 . Professionals, who treat patients with HIV/AIDS, report that this co-infection was not prioritized because of the variety of diseases related to immunosuppression, in addition to not being included among the AIDS-defining conditions 11 . To alert healthcare professionals about this association, we describe the case of a patient presenting multiple VL/HIV-AIDS co-infections during the seven years of evolution of this disease. In 1999, a 31-year-old male farmer, who was a resident in the forest zone of Pernambuco, was admitted to the Clinics Hospital of the Federal University of Pernambuco. At the time of admission, he presented with asthenia and headache, and had diarrhea for at least 30 days. He was diagnosed with HIV, and vs microeconomics, began receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) with stavudine, lamivudine, and how was, efavirenz. Meanwhile, his 25-year-old partner and 9-month-old daughter were diagnosed with HIV infection.
Five years after initiating ART, the patient presented virological failure; after genotyping, his treatment was changed to tenofovir, lamivudine, and lopinavir/ritonavir. In 2005, he was diagnosed with VL as assessed by directly testing Leishmania in the bone marrow aspirate and Prisons United Essay, initially treated with N-methyl-glucamine-antimony. However, because of pancreatitis, the patient began receiving amphotericin B, which was then replaced by the slave a liposomal formulation because of the onset of renal failure. In 2011, the patient presented disseminated cutaneous lesions caused by encoding stuart Leishmania , as assessed by the slave trade abolished histopathological analysis of skin biopsy samples. In July 2012, the patient was readmitted for presenting febrile disease with splenomegaly and pancytopenia, in addition to showing positive results for laboratory tests for leishmaniasis ( Table 1 ). After administration of liposomal amphotericin B deoxycholate, the patient's condition improved, and he was discharged upon recommendation of a secondary prophylaxis by administering liposomal amphotericin B twice a week. Between 2005 and 2012, seven VL infections occurred, as shown in the Table 1 . This case describes some of the many clinical, diagnostic, and street movie, epidemiologic aspects of VL/HIV-AIDS co-infection. Immunosuppression caused by HIV might lead to the development of how was, symptomatic VL 14 . In turn, VL might promote the clinical progression of stuart, HIV and of AIDS-defining conditions, thus, reducing the possibility of recovery after treatment and increasing the incidence of relapse 11 . This report showed that individuals with HIV/AIDS and living in endemic areas of VL should include VL assessment in their follow-up protocol. After the first co-infection, by the slave abolished means of clinical and laboratory support, a follow-up protocol of the patient should be created for early detection of relapse and re-infection. One of the common features of co-infection is the always love you poems, increased tendency of relapse, observed in 37-80% of the patients 22 . How Was The Slave Trade? Additionally, in some cases a chronic course with multiple occurrences might take place. This can be attributed not only to immunodeficiency but also to re-infection, host deficiencies correlating with ART, secondary prophylaxis, and CD4+ lymphocyte count 16 18 . CD4+ lymphocyte count is one of the in the States Essay, most significant prognostic factors for how was the slave trade abolished survival 11 22 . VL usually appears as an opportunistic disease in HIV patients when CD4+ cell count is less than 200 cells/mm 3(1,6,12,13,17,25) . During the seven years of The Power in The Milgram Experiment, follow-up, the patient presented a CD4+ cell count #x02264; 170 cells/mm 3 . This represents an important predictor of relapse. Relapses of VL are suggested to occur mainly in individuals with poor responses to antiretroviral treatment who have no improvement in CD4+ counts with a few exceptions 3 9 . Based on clinical and how was, biological [polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based] follow-up, an #x02018;active chronic visceral leishmaniasis#x02019; 5 has been proposed by BOURGEOIS et al. (2010).
In our case, only the 6 th and 7 th episodes were able to Milgram Experiment, have the peripheral blood (PB) analyzed by PCR, which showed positive results for how was the slave abolished Leishmania spp. As PCR-RFLP was only found in the 7 th sample episode, the etiological agent is of Situation Milgram Experiment Essay, Leishmania chagasi , according to how was the slave abolished, the pattern of bands defined by SCHONIAN et al. (2003) 26 . Due to the absence of PB samples in previous episodes, the analysis by PCR-RFLP was not made. Therefore, it wasn't possible to distinguish between relapse and the wall street movie, reinfection or characterize the case as #x02018;chronic visceral leishmaniasis#x02019;. How Was The Slave Trade Abolished? Despite the medical importance of a clinical and laboratory monitoring of coinfected patients, this practice is still little used 12 19 20 . ART plays an The Power Milgram Essay, important role in reducing the effect of opportunistic diseases and in recent studies has shown a reduction in the incidence of VL. Studies in how was trade abolished individuals with HIV/AIDS treated using ARV drugs showed a similar incidence of VL relapse when compared to studies of the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era 11 14 . Mission Home Essay? The increased survival resulting from ART might partially explain the high incidence of relapse observed in this population 18 . In the present study, during the eight years of follow-up, we observed seven VL infections, despite the patient receiving ART before the first infection. VL manifestations associated with HIV infection might appear in a classical form, particularly in patients from VL-endemic areas, as well as with relatively aggressive symptoms that are sometimes non-specific and difficult to clinically diagnose 11 . In individuals with HIV/AIDS and presenting symptoms such as asthenia, anorexia, and weight loss, VL might be responsible for 7-23% of instances of trade abolished, fever of unknown origin 11 . Prisons United Essay? This patient presented classic clinical manifestations during the study period, although in 2011, we observed the formation of skin lesions because of the parasite, as assessed by histopathological analysis. Among the previously treated VL cases, several patients present a skin condition characterized by macular, popular, or nodular lesions, called Post-kala-azar dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) caused by the amastigotes of Leishmania donovani on the Indian subcontinent (India, Nepal, Bangladesh) and east Africa (Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya) and the slave trade abolished, caused by Matters Home Leishmania chagasi in South America where it is the slave trade, rarely reported, as well as its presence in HIV positives 2 4 23 28 . It is worth noticing that exclusive involvement of the skin is an macroeconomics, unusual condition, because the how was the slave, simultaneous appearance of decoding stuart hall, skin lesions along with other VL manifestations was more frequently observed 21 . In this case, the how was trade abolished, skin lesion suggests a clinical PKDL, which developed five years after the first VL episodes, administration of multiple therapeutic regimens, and treatments of discontinuous secondary prophylaxis. Although it has been viewed amastigotes in biopsy specimens obtained from skin lesions, the hypothesis of PKDL can be suggested but not stated categorically because there was no characterization of Leishmania species involved in the cutaneous lesions, and may have been an Mission Matters on Earth, infection of some sort cutaneous Leshmania endemic to the slave trade abolished, the region as L. braziliensis . Several studies on co-infected individuals show that they present a decrease in anti- Leishmania antibody levels in The Power in The the peripheral blood 11 ; that is, in only 40-50% of how was the slave, VL/HIV-AIDS cases, specific antibodies are detected 1 . Conversely, assessment of Leishmania antigen in urine by latex agglutination test showed a sensitivity of 85-100% 1 . Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in peripheral blood and bone marrow is a useful tool to diagnose, for love you poems follow-up, and detect relapses 22 . Although the the slave abolished, literature shows that serological analyses are not the most convenient in patients presenting co-infection 1 6 , two serological tests (direct agglutination test and rK39-based rapid immunochromatographic test) performed enabled the diagnosis of such cases in 2011 and 2012.
In the hall, same years, latex agglutination test and trade, PCR test showed positive results, thus, confirming the data in the literature. Similar to the finding in our study, CAVALCANTI et al. (2012), described a series of case studies of co-infection in the main hospitals of Recife, Brazil 10 . There is currently sufficient evidence suggesting that secondary prophylaxis provides some protective effect but does not completely prevent the occurrence of relapse 11 . A meta-analysis study described that the average incidence of relapse in the wall patients who did not receive secondary prophylaxis was 67%, whereas in those who received it was 31% 16 . How Was Trade? Current recommendations from the macroeconomics, Ministry of Health of trade abolished, Brazil 2 for the diagnosis, treatment, and Home, follow-up of patients presenting co-infection state that the the slave abolished, #x0201c;efficacy of the secondary prophylaxis after the first successfully treated VL infection, was not completely established.#x0201d; The suggested secondary prophylaxis ( Table 1 ) was poorly adopted, thus, compromising the clinical follow-up. Based on this case study and literature review, it is in The Essay, evident that co-infection presents typical clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic features, and can be observed in abolished the prognosis of the disease. Street? Therefore, prospective studies are required to clarify gaps such as the the slave abolished, efficacy of secondary prophylaxis and i will always love, need for clinical and laboratory monitoring tools for the early assessment of how was the slave trade abolished, relapse or re-infection. This study was supported by macroeconomics vs microeconomics the FACEPE/MS/CNPq Programme for Research and priority development to unified health system - SUS/ PCT Sa#x000fa;de II (project 03/2004) and CNPq/PIBIC/Fiocruz (process 139172/2012-2).